Disassembly of 9V primary batteries

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HKJ
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Disassembly of 9V primary batteries
Disassembly of 9V primary batteries

DSC_7824

How is a 9V primary (alkaline or zinc-carbon) battery build? It must be 6 1.5V cells in series, but how is this done? I will check some different 9V batteries and see if they uses the same method.

This article got considerable longer than expected and I have only added comments to some of the batteries.



How is a battery build

First a bit theory:

Alkaline is build from:
  • Negative electrode: zinc (Usual a paste, because it is mixed with potassium hydroxide)
  • Positive electrode: manganese oxide
  • Between separator

AlkalineFlat


Zinc-Carbon (or zinc-chloride) is build from:
  • Negative electrode: zinc (Usual a plate)
  • Positive electrode: carbon + manganese oxide
  • Between (electrolyte): Separator with ammonium chloride

CarbonZincFlat

In both types of cells there must be a separator between the positive and negative electrode. This separator must allow the chemical reaction to take place, but block any current (Or the battery would short itself). This is usual two layers of fabric soaked in the electrolyte.

In a 9V battery the cells must also be chemically isolated from each other and connected electrically in series.

Alkaline is usual marked 6LR61 (round cells) or 6LF22 (flat cells) and zinc-carbon is marked 6F22
I assume batteries called “Heavy Duty” or “Super Heavy Duty” is zinc-carbon.

9VBatteryList

This list shows all the batteries I have looked inside.



Aerocell Alkaline

DSC_8312

There is no information where this cell is made, but a guess would be Malaysia.

DSC_9650

DSC_9653

DSC_9652DSC_9654

DSC_9655DSC_9656

A good view on the construction of a cell



Aro Alkaline (Malaysia?)

DSC_7993

This battery is not marked with any country.

DSC_8017

This construction is used on many quality batteries.

DSC_8018

DSC_8019DSC_8020

This battery has a US patent inside.



Budget Alkaline

DSC_8335

DSC_8339

DSC_9617

DSC_9618

DSC_9620

DSC_9621

DSC_9622


DSC_9632
DSC_9690

DSC_9634DSC_9691DSC_9631

DSC_9625

DSC_9629DSC_9630



Duracell Duralock

DSC_9692

DSC_9699

DSC_9700
DSC_9701

DSC_9702DSC_9703

DSC_9705

DSC_9706
DSC_9709

DSC_9707DSC_9711DSC_9713

DSC_9708

DSC_9712

DSC_9714DSC_9715



Duracell Industrial Alkaline (Malaysia)

DSC_8321

DSC_9672
DSC_9674

DSC_9673DSC_9675

DSC_9676



Duracell Procell Alkaline (Belgium)

DSC_7961

This must be one of the better Duracell alkaline batteries.

DSC_7958

It is not too old yet.

DSC_7962

Six cells and with a nice holders for the cells.

DSC_7963

I wonder if the dirty looks is from usage (Can it get around the metal can?) or from the factory.

DSC_7964

Oops, this battery do not look very good, it has leaked. At least it has stayed inside the battery.

DSC_7965DSC_7966

The top do also use welded strips for connection.

DSC_7967

As always the cells are in series.

DSC_7968
DSC_7972

The leak must have moved under the plastic for the cell to looks this way.

DSC_7969

The printing on the cell is rather difficult to read.

DSC_7971DSC_7970DSC_7973

The marks on top and bottom is from the welded strips.

DSC_7974
DSC_7975

The negative center pole looks like a nail. As usual it goes into some zinc paste with a bag around it.



Energizer Alkaline (USA)

DSC_7915

One of the big battery brands, how do they make the battery?

DSC_7903

They make it in USA and this battery is fairly old.

DSC_7916

When the metal is removed everything fall apart, all the connections are by pressure only.
The clear part at the bottom is some “soft” stuff to apply pressure.

DSC_7917DSC_7918

Both top and bottom are some paper with metal foil on it.

DSC_7919DSC_7920

Top is paper with foil around a piece of cardboard.

DSC_7921
DSC_7924

The cell looks nice for its age (no leaking), as usual (inside 9V cells) the can is plus and the top is minus.

DSC_7922DSC_7923DSC_7925

Notice that half of the can covers the insert with the top, this looks like a way to easier put it together.

DSC_7926

The top is a nail into the center of the battery.

DSC_7927

Where there is zinc (Rather green due to age) and a bag around it with the outside filled with carbon.



Energizer Alkaline 0914 Alkaline (Assembled in USA)

DSC_8349

DSC_9677
DSC_9679

DSC_9678

DSC_9680

DSC_9683
DSC_9684
DSC_9686


DSC_9681DSC_9685

DSC_9682

DSC_9687

DSC_9688DSC_9689



First Price Alkaline

DSC_9580

DSC_9588

Under the metal foil is a metal can.

DSC_9589

DSC_9590

At the bottom is an extra layer of some soft stuff.

DSC_9591

The battery had a protection strip across the terminals when new, this strip starts inside the can.

DSC_9592DSC_9594

The top connnections are isolated with some paper.

DSC_9593

DSC_9595
DSC_9598

DSC_9596DSC_9599

DSC_9597

DSC_9600

DSC_9601DSC_9602



Fujitsu G Alkaline (Malaysia)

DSC_7662

DSC_7663

DSC_7664DSC_7665

DSC_8047DSC_8048

It does not look like there is a patent on this battery.



Golden Power Heavy Duty Zinc-Carbon (China)

DSC_8314

DSC_8318

DSC_9643

DSC_9644

As usual connection is done by pressure.

DSC_9645

It looks like this battery has started to leak.

DSC_9646DSC_9647

The plus side is marked red, the minus blue.

DSC_9648

DSC_9649

The minus side is carbon and it is soft, on the plus side is some sort of rubbery chemical isolation on top of the Zinc plate.



GP Alkaline (Malaysia)

DSC_7828

A Chinese brand, but made in Malaysia?

DSC_7831

It looks exactly the same as other Malaysia made batteries.

DSC_7832DSC_7833

DSC_8041



GP Supercell zinc-carbon (China)

DSC_8313

DSC_8309

DSC_8311

This is one of the few cells with metal bottom.

DSC_9635

DSC_9636

Connections to the battery pack are only by pressure.

DSC_9637

DSC_9638

DSC_9639

The positive side is marked with orange color.

DSC_9640

DSC_9641

The cells are wrapped in two layer plastic, the inner layer is for each cell and on top of that an outer layer that keeps the pile together.

DSC_9642

The 6 cells.



Ikea Alkaline (China)

DSC_7638

The Ikea battery is different, it do not have a metal wrapper, but a plastic/metal foil wrapper.

DSC_7639

Here is the plastic box with the battery and the wrapper.

DSC_7640

Both connections are at the top.

DSC_7641DSC_7642

Because it is 6 small cells in series.

DSC_7643DSC_7644

DSC_7645
DSC_7646

They are about the size of AAAA cells, but watch out for polarity!
The can is plus and the top is minus.

DSC_7647DSC_7648


DSC_7649DSC_7650

DSC_7651DSC_7652



Kameda Alkaline

DSC_8008

This battery is not marked with any country.

DSC_8022

It is a plastic box with a thin metal foil for branding.

DSC_8023DSC_8024

Inside the box is 6 small alkaline cells.

DSC_8025

All in series.

DSC_8026
DSC_8027
DSC_8030

The film covering the batteries is isolating and rather sticky (It was difficult to remove).

DSC_8028DSC_8033DSC_8031

DSC_8034

The cells have vent holes, but there is a seal on the inside.

DSC_8032



MarQuant Alkaline

DSC_8328

DSC_8332

No country only a reference to a Nordic web shop.

DSC_9603

A plastic body with metal foil around it.

DSC_9604

The usual strips connection the cells to the terminals.

DSC_9606

DSC_9605

The plastic body is molded to keep the cells in place, this is done on all plastic cans.

DSC_9607
DSC_9610

DSC_9615DSC_9611

DSC_9609

DSC_9612

DSC_9613DSC_9616



Panasonic Pro Power Alkaline (Malaysia)

DSC_7653

Another brand with metal wrapper.

DSC_7654

It looks like the typical Malaysia construction.

DSC_7655DSC_7656

No patent in this battery.

DSC_7657DSC_7658

A few more details from the connection.

DSC_7659
DSC_7660
DSC_7661



Philips Extremelife Alkaline (China)

DSC_8342


DSC_9657DSC_9658

When I got the wrapper partially loose the batteries starting falling out, looks like the battery has leaked, but being a 9V it usual stays inside the battery.

DSC_9659


DSC_9660DSC_9661

DSC_9662
DSC_9671
DSC_9667

DSC_9664DSC_9666

DSC_9663


DSC_9668DSC_9669
DSC_9670



Philips Power Alkaline (China)

DSC_7982

Philips has more than one type of 9V batteries.

DSC_7979

This one is from China.

DSC_7985

It is 6 cells in a plastic box with a thin metal film wrapper.

DSC_7987
DSC_7990

An unmarked cell and as usual with plus on can.

DSC_7988DSC_7989DSC_7991

DSC_7992

Construction as usual with a pouch containing zinc and manganese oxide around it.



Powermaker Alkaline

DSC_8013

DSC_8035

DSC_8036

DSC_8038

DSC_8037

DSC_8040



Sanyo Alkaline (Malaysia)

DSC_7623

Lets start with this.

DSC_7624

It has a metal wrap around with a plastic bottom. Inside is a block that must be the 6 cells.


DSC_7625DSC_7626

The contacts at the top of the battery is connected to the top and bottom of the block.
The connections is to connection plates, these plates are then connected to the cells through some small holes.

DSC_8045DSC_8046

The top is marked with US patent 5691079

DSC_7627DSC_7628

There is different types of metal at the top and bottom.


DSC_7629

And the holes have a small O-ring to keep them sealed.

DSC_7631

Here are the 6 cells, stacked on top on each other in a plastic block.

DSC_7632DSC_7633

Here I have opened on cell, what is all the stuff in it?

DSC_7634

This looks like a block of carbon with a metal clamp for connection to it and a rivet for connection to the next cell.

DSC_7635

The carbon and the separators.

DSC_7637

The zinc is a paste and it is fairly black.



Sharpstar zinc-carbon (China)

DSC_7885

A unknown brand from China

DSC_7882

The manufacturer is printed on the battery.

DSC_7886

The name on the battery is just a thin plastic wraparound, hidden the metal.

DSC_7887

Removing the metal shows 6 stacked cells.

DSC_7888
DSC_7889

They are held together with plastic film.

DSC_7890

The connection to the cells are not soldered.

DSC_7894

There is some sharp points that is supposed to do the connection.

DSC_7891DSC_7893

On the plus side and on the minus side.

DSC_7896

After removing a layer of plastic the cells are mostly loose.

DSC_7897

Here are all 6 cells, the top and bottom cell has metal reinforcement. The other is either carbon or zinc.

DSC_7900DSC_7901

It is easier to see if I scratch a bit on the surface. It looks like the zinc has black layer, it must something to avoid making a cell with the carbon, but allow current to pass.

DSC_7898

Removing the last layer of plastic and the carbon breaks up.

DSC_7899

Here is everything: zinc plate, two layers of separator and carbon.

DSC_7902

Both the top and the bottom have a metal plate, it is obvious that something is needed over the carbon, but the metal plate at the zinc electrode, is that the zinc plate or an extra plate?
As can be seen here the is some conductive “rubber” between the zinc and an extra metal place.



Thumbcells zinc-carbon (China)

DSC_7912

Never heard of this brand before.

DSC_7911

But it is a company name.

DSC_7928

This looks like something I have seen in other cells.

DSC_7929

No welded connections, just a crown pressing down on the cell.

DSC_7930DSC_7931

That is the same for both plus and minus.

DSC_7932

DSC_7933

The cells, the smooths surface is zinc, the other carbon.

DSC_7934

A bit scratching shows it clearly.

DSC_7936DSC_7937

Top and bottom both have protective plates.



UNI-T zinc-carbon

DSC_7944

UNI-T is a Chinese instrument manufacturer, I doubt they make batteries. I expect they have bought this from another manufacturer and probably a Chinese one.

DSC_7945

This looks fairly standard for zinc-carbon.

DSC_7948

The connection with two crowns to press against the end of the battery.

DSC_7946DSC_7947

Red is plus and blue is minus

DSC_7949
DSC_7950

The 6 cells.

DSC_7951DSC_7952

At the red end is carbon, there is an chemical isolation layer between the plate and the manganese oxide.

DSC_7953DSC_7954

At the blue end is zinc, there is ah chemical isolation layer between the plate and the zinc.



Varta Industrial Alkaline (China)

DSC_7834

DSC_7839

DSC_7840
DSC_7841
DSC_7842

DSC_7846DSC_7847

The can is positive and the top is negative on this cell.

DSC_7844
DSC_7845
DSC_7849

The size is about AAAA, but due to the reverse polarity it is not a direct replacement.

DSC_7850
DSC_7851

The nail is the negative electrode.

DSC_7852DSC_7853

There is some plastic isolation between the negative (center) and the positive (can).
All the black stuff inside the can is manganese oxide.

DSC_7854

Between the negative and positive electrode material is a separator, it looks like a small bag. I have pulled it out here.

DSC_7855DSC_7857

Cutting the bag open shows that it is filled with Zinc powder for the negative electrode.



Conclusion

As can be seen there are 3 types of 9V batteries:
1) Zinc-Carbon with flat cells
2) Alkaline with flat cells
3) Alkaline with round cells.

The production of 1) is fairly standard and is always made in Chine, 2) is always made in Malaysia.
With the round cells there is much more variation, both in construction and where they are made/assembled.

As can be seen from some of the batteries 9V can leak like other batteries, but usual it stays inside the outer box.



Notes

US patent 5691079: This patent describes the tray shape used in the Malaysia manufactured batteries. It was applied for in 1995 and granted in 1997 and it is from a Danish company.

To get as many different batteries as possible I asked a some friends if they had any used 9V batteries, they had!

Review of 9V batteries, both primary and rechargeable
Disassembly of 9V LiIon batteries

My website with reviews of many chargers and batteries (More than 1000): http://lygte-info.dk/

Tumbleweed48
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Those six small cells are actually “AAAA”.

I once had a couple of penlight flashlights that used them, but the little cells were ridiculously expensive. I got in the habit of dismantling a fresh 9 v. cell to get six for less than the usual price of two, but you have to be careful about identifying + and -. I seem to recall that polarity was opposite to what the cells looked like.

HKJ
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Tumbleweed48 wrote:
Those six small cells are actually “AAAA”.

I once had a couple of penlight flashlights that used them, but the little cells were ridiculously expensive. I got in the habit of dismantling a fresh 9 v. cell to get six for less than the usual price of two, but you have to be careful about identifying + and -. I seem to recall that polarity was opposite to what the cells looked like.

I am not sure they are AAAA, but they are very close to that size. On alkaline batteries the can is positive, on consumer batteries they are packed to the match the old zinc-carbon cells.

My website with reviews of many chargers and batteries (More than 1000): http://lygte-info.dk/

RollerBoySE
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Very interesting, thanks HKJ!

Aren’t there 9V lithium primaries too?

HKJ
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RollerBoySE wrote:
Aren’t there 9V lithium primaries too?

Yes, there are, but I did not get any of them.

My website with reviews of many chargers and batteries (More than 1000): http://lygte-info.dk/

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Thanks for the effort HKJ. Lots of interesting info. Beer

My current and or voltage measurements are only relevent to anything that I measure.

Budget light hobby proudly sponsored by my Mastercard and unknowingly paid for by a hard working wife. 

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zelee
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i never knew there was several tiny batteries in a 9V battery, i though they were filled a whole like a normal AA and AAA

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I am using two of the Soshine 650mah 9v rechargeable and so far i like them.

Tired of my flash meters always being dead (parasitic drain).

And what the are these?
ER9V 1200mAh Lithium Thionyl Chloride(Li SOCL2) Battery
PKCELL Li-SOCL2

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Amazing photos and sweet information, HKJ!

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Aro is a brand of Makro Netherlands.

Check the bar code on the batteries. If the number starts with 955, then it’s from Malaysia

Cheers

Kel

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Tumbleweed48 wrote:
Those six small cells are actually “AAAA”.

I once had a couple of penlight flashlights that used them, but the little cells were ridiculously expensive. I got in the habit of dismantling a fresh 9 v. cell to get six for less than the usual price of two, but you have to be careful about identifying + and -. I seem to recall that polarity was opposite to what the cells looked like.


For years I carried a Streamlight Stylus that used three AAAA cells, and I also used to gut 9 volters to scavenge the innards to power my sick obsessive desire to see things at night.
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So if this 9V block is 6 × 1.5V, does this also mean that a 9V block is six times more likely to leak than a standard 1.5V battery? It should be right?

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Yes and no.

the P (of a leak) is 6x
but the P(of leaking is different) If the leak of a single cell is contained, then did the 9v leak?

I guess technically the P(of a 9v leaking) is the P(of all combinations of individual cells) in summation actually escaping from the 9v container.

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Fascinating tearing off as usual. Thanks HKJ!

I new the big flat 4.5V had 3 AA serial (because i dismantled quite a few when i was a kid…) but never even though about how those compact 9V batteries where made! Have never seen a AAAA cell either…

Now i want a AAAA light! Facepalm

What about performance and reliability of those 9V? Some of the chinese ‘stacked’ cells look quite messy… like they are wrapped by hand (or foot?)… Flat Stare

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i have torn some apart.the case has 3 pockets with a stacked plate cell in each.
like a lead acid car battery in miniature.
things get interesting if you open them and drop a torn up cell in water…
fire

RollerBoySE wrote:
Very interesting, thanks HKJ!

Aren’t there 9V lithium primaries too?