Lithium-ion battery safety 101

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Dimbo The Blinky
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DavidEF wrote:
Kids don’t try this at home!
Or buy a cheap plastic caliper for energized parts!

“There is no darkness but ignorance.”

kiriba-ru
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Russian one:

Безопасность Литий-ионных аккумуляторов

Мотивация:
Большинство обозреваемых на BLF фонарей используют заряжаемые Литий-ионные аккумуляторы. Их использование может быть небезопасным и требует большей осторожности, чем использование алкалиновых батареек. Но при должном использовании, возникновение неприятностей можно избежать.

Целевая аудитория:
Этот пост описывает правила техники безопасности для начинающих пользователей Литий-ионных аккумуляторов. Мы не пытаемся предоставить полную информацию о Литий-ионных аккумуляторах или описать технические причины их небезопасности. Рассматривайте этот пост как введение.

Часто возникают разногласия по поводу использования правил техники безопасности. Если вы работаете в лаборатории РОСНАНО, некоторые правила вам не подойдут, зато они уместны для новичков. Нужно отталкиваться от собственных знаний и опыта.

Литий-ионные аккумуляторы безопасны при правильном использовании.
Литий-ионные аккумуляторы небезопасны при неправильном использовании.

• Покупайте качественные аккумуляторы
-Не стоит экономить несколько центов на покупке безымянных аккумуляторов
-Дешевые аккумуляторы могут быть поддельными или использованными

https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0674/3651/files/wholesale_18650_batter...
https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18852875-re...
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1421555-chinas-sloppy-battery-industry-t...
-Опытные пользователи достают аккумуляторы из батарейных блоков (например, из старой батареи ноутбука) -не пробуйте, не имея достаточно опыта - http://budgetlightforum.com/node/32720
-Обзоры аккумуляторов: - http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable/reviews
- http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable
- http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html
• Используйте качественное зарядное устройство

o Не стоит выбирать самое дешевое зарядное устройство.

o Плохой аккумулятор может быть безопасен в хорошем зарядном устройстве, но самый хороший аккумулятор будет опасен в плохом зарядном. (SawMaster)
o Читайте обзоры. Покупайте зарядное устройство известного бренда с хорошими отзывами.
o Вещи, на которые стоит обратить внимание при выборе зарядного устройства:
 Защите от превышения заряда.
 Защита от обратной полярности.
 Независимые каналы для зарядки разных типов аккумуляторов или аккумуляторов с разным уровнем заряда.
 Пользовательский интерфейс на ваш выбор. Сегментный индикатор или LCD-дисплей.
o Зарядное напряжение в конце заряда должно составлять 4.2V +/- 0.05V, но защищенные аккумуляторы могут отключать заряд раньше.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
o Обзоры зарядных устройств.
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (link is external)
• Купите и используйте мультиметр.
o Многие предпочитают электронный мультиметр (DMM).
o Научитесь проверять свои литий-ионные аккумуляторы.
o http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/Measurement%20UK.html (link is external)
o Примечание: не все думают, что использовать мультиметр обязательно, но большинство одобряет его наличие.
• Заряд / Разряд
o Аккумуляторы можно заряжать при: 0*C – 45*C (32*F – 113*F)
o Аккумуляторы можно разряжать при: -20*C – 60*C (-4*F – 140*F)
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp… (link is external).
• Не превышайте заряд ваших аккумуляторов.
o Максимальное напряжение не должно превышать 4.2V.
o Заряд до 4.1V поможет аккумулятору прожить больше циклов заряд-разряд.
o Хорошее зарядное устройство поможет вам избежать превышения напряжения.
o Напряжение в конце заряда может гулять в пределах +/- 0.05V и это норма.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
o Проверяйте напряжение на своем аккумуляторе через пять минут после окончания заряда.
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_lithium_ion_batteries (внешняя ссылка)
• Не разряжайте свои аккумуляторы полностью.
o Многие считают оптимальным ставить на зарядку аккумуляторы с напряжением 3.5- 3.6V
o Когда напряжение на аккумуляторе достигает 2.7-3.0v его емкость исчерпана и его следует зарядить.
o Разряд аккумулятора до 2.5v наносит ему ущерб.
o Если аккумулятор разряжен до 2.0v, его следует утилизировать.
• Не заряжайте аккумуляторы при температуре ниже нуля. (0*C / 32*F)
• Не давайте аккумуляторам перегреваться.
o Если вы собираетесь оставить фонарь в автомобиле в солнечный летний день, предпочтительно использовать первичные литиевые батареи
o Высокие температуры ускоряют деградацию аккумуляторов, температура в пределах 60*C (140*F), вероятно, не несет опасности.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp… (внешняя ссылка).
• Для длительного хранения (месяцы) используйте заряд 40-50% емкости. (3.77-3.87V)
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_store_batteries (внешняя ссылка)
• Вне фонаря аккумуляторы должны находиться в защитной коробке.
o Они предохраняют аккумулятор от замыкания и механических повреждений.
o
o Никогда не носите аккумуляторы без кейса в кармане или сумке.
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1LjSuq0rk8 (link is external) <==
• Не используйте аккумуляторы с механическими повреждениями.
• В целом, аккумуляторы с защитой безопаснее аккумуляторов без неё.
o Аккумуляторы с защитой имеют встроенную плату защиты, которая предохраняет аккумулятор от чрезмерного разряда или заряда.
o Плата защиты немного увеличивает длину и диаметр аккумулятора. Аккумуляторы с защитой влезают не во все фонари. Проверьте свой.
o Некоторые фонари имеют встроенную защиту от чрезмерного разряда. Проверьте свой.
o Некоторые фонари потребляют больший ток, чем может пропустить платы защиты. В них нужно использовать аккумуляторы без защиты. Проверьте свой.
• Фонари на нескольких аккумуляторах более опасны, чем фонари на одном.
o Если вы начинающий фонаревщик, может, стоить ограничить свой выбор среди фонарей с одним аккумулятором
• Для снижения вероятности неравномерного разряда нескольких аккумуляторов, все они должны:
o Быть одного типа,
o Быть одного производителя,
o Иметь одинаковую емкость (Ah) ,
o Быть заряженными до одного уровня.
o Можете пометить несколько аккумуляторов, чтобы использовать их вместе.
• Заряжайте аккумуляторы вдали от легковоспламеняемых материалов.
o Ставьте зарядное устройство на стойку, а не на диван.
• Никогда не оставляйте заряжаемые аккумуляторы без присмотра.
o Проверяйте их температуру время от времени. Они могут быть теплыми, но не горячими.
o Примечание: в разных случаях время между проверками может отличаться.
o http://www.local10.com/news/local-10-investigates/lithium-ion-battery-bu… (внешняя сылка)
• Испорченные аккумуляторы могут воспламеняться!

“Жестокие условия эксплуатации, такие как чрезмерный заряд, чрезмерный разряд и внутренние короткие замыкания могут привести к температурам аккумулятора, далеким от предусмотренных производителем. При критической температуре может быть вызвана цепь экзотермических реакций. Реакции приводят к дальнейшему повышению температуры, которое в свою очередь ускоряет кинетику реакции. Это катастрофическое самоускоренное ухудшение литий-ионного аккумулятора называют тепловым разгоном.2” (внешняя ссылка)
“Во время теплового разгона температура аккумулятора может достигнуть 900 °C,3 (внешняя ссылка) при этом наружу может выйти существенное количество горючего и токсичного (при вдыхании существенных концентраций) газа.4” (внешняя ссылка)
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (внешняя ссылка)
• При воспламенении литий-ионного аккумулятора требуется незамедлительная медицинская помощь.
o При взрыве или испускании газа литий-ионные аккумуляторы выделяют фторид водорода. Симптомы его пагубного воздействия на организм проявляются не сразу.
o “ наружу может выйти существенное количество горючего и токсичного (при вдыхании существенных концентраций) газа.4” (внешняя ссылка)
 Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (внешняя ссылка)
o Срочно вызывайте скорую медицинскую помощь. Не ждите проявления симптомов.
o http://www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php?141137-Inhaled-vapors… (внешняя ссылка)!!!
• Существуют разные варианты использования магнитов для получения аккумуляторов с выступающим контактом из аккумуляторов с плоским контактом.
• Не мочите аккумуляторы.
• Не сжигайте аккумуляторы.
• Утилизируйте аккумуляторы правильно.
o Canada – http://call2recycle.ca/ (внешняя ссылка)
o United Kingdom – http://www.batteryback.org./ (внешняя ссылка)
o United States – http://call2recycle.org/ (внешняя ссылка)
• Храните аккумуляторы вне досягаемости детей и домашних животных.
o Если они проглотят аккумуляторы, они застрянут в горле или пищеводе. Слюна замкнет контакты, электрический ток вызовет химическую реакцию, которая может сильно сжечь пищевод всего за два часа.
o Это серьезная проблема для детей и животных.
o В первую очередь относится к аккумуляторам с выступающим плюсовым контактом, но может произойти с любыми аккумуляторыми.
o http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/kohls-injury-prevention-program/lit... (внешняя ссылка)
o http://www.emedicinehealth.com/battery_ingestion/article_em.htm (внешняя ссылка)

The Miller
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Thank you so much!!

Mr.Scott
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Thank you for the translation kiriba-ru!

I’ve added a link from the main post to your translation.

Mr.Scott
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Thank you to xatu for this translation.
——-

Seguridad en baterías de iones de litio Li-Ion

Motivación:
Muchas de las linternas comentadas/analizadas/modificadas en Budget Light Forum (BLF) usan baterías recargables de Li-Ion. El uso de baterías de Li-Ion introduce algunos riesgos, y requiere más precauciones que las baterías alcalinas. Pero como cualquier herramienta, cuando se usa bien, los riesgos pueden ser manejados y reducidos.

Nederlandse vertaling / Dutch Translation
Islandic þýðing / Islandic Translation
traduction française / French translation
Deutsche Übersetzung / German Translation
русский перевод / Russian Translation
Traducción al español / Spanish Translation

Dirigido a:
Este post describe las precauciones de seguridad para los usuarios que son nuevos con las baterías de Li-Ion. No intenta ofrecer un tutorial completo de baterías de Litio-ion ni las razones técnicas de peligros del ion-litio. Se pretende que sea un punto de partida.
Siempre habrá cierto desacuerdo sobre las reglas de seguridad. Algunas de estas reglas de seguridad pueden no aplicarse a aquellos que eran ayudantes de laboratorio para Dr. Goodenough(el enlace es externo), pero es de esperar que sean apropiados para los nuevos usuarios. Tienes que ser consciente de su nivel de conocimientos y experiencia.
Las baterías recargables de iones de litio se pueden utilizar de forma segura cuando se utilizan correctamente.
Las baterías recargables de iones de litio pueden ser peligrosas cuando se usan incorrectamente.
• Compra baterías de calidad.
o El ahorro de unos pocos centavos en lo que pueden ser baterías cuestionables no vale la pena.
o Algunas baterías más baratas pueden ser falsas o pueden ser recicladas / recuperadas.

https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18852875-re… (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1421555-chinas-sloppy-battery-industry-t (link is external)… (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
o Los usuarios experimentados cosechan baterías de los paquetes de baterías.
 Espera hasta que tenga más experiencia con Li-ion antes de intentarlo.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/32720
o Análisis de baterías.
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
• Compra un cargador de baterías de calidad.
o Este es otro lugar para no ir a la ruta barata.

o Una batería de bajo rendimiento puede ser seguro en un buen cargador, pero ninguna batería es segura en un cargador malo. (SawMaster)
o Lea las opiniones. Compra una marca con una buena crítica.
o Cosas a considerar:
 Protección de sobrecarga.
 Protección contra polaridad inversa.
 Canales independientes para que pueda cargar diferentes tipos de baterías o niveles de descargas al mismo tiempo.
 Interfaz de usuario que de lo que te gusta. Indicadores de luces frente a pantalla LCD.
o El cargador debe cargar a 4.2V +/- 0.05V, pero la batería se podría salir con una tensión diferente.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
o Análisis de cargadores.
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
• Compra y usa un multímetro.
o A muchos le gustan los multímetros (DMM).
o Aprender a comprobar la tensión de las baterías de iones de litio.
o http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/Measurement%20UK.html (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
o Nota: No todo el mundo está de acuerdo en que necesites un multímetro, pero mucha gente lo recomienda.
• Carga / Descarga
o Las baterías se pueden cargar a: 0*C – 45*C (32*F – 113*F)
o Las baterías se pueden descargar a: -20*C – 60*C (-4*F – 140*F)
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp (link is external)… (link is external)(el enlace es externo).
• No sobrecargues tus baterías.
o La tensión máxima debe ser 4.2V.
o Simplemente cargando a 4.1V puede darte más ciclos de carga.
o Un buen cargador de baterías te ayuda a prevenir la sobrecarga.
o Los cargadores de baterías pueden cargar +/- 0.05V y todavía estar dentro de la tolerancia.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
o Después de cargar comprueba la tensión de la batería con tu multímetro después de un descanso corto (~5 min).
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_lithium_ion_batteries (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
• No sobre descargues tus baterías.
o Muchas personas optan por recargar sus baterías cuando llegan a 3.5- 3.6V
o Las pilas se agotan cuando llegan a 2.7-3.0v. Recarga.
o Las baterías comienzan a sufrir daños si se descargan a 2.5 voltios.
o Las baterías deben ser desechadas si se descargan hasta 2.0 voltios.
• No cargar las baterías cuando la temperatura está por debajo de cero. (0*C / 32*F)
• No deje que sus baterías se calienten demasiado.
o Si se va a almacenar la linterna en el coche en verano, se recomienda utilizar pilas primarias mejor que las baterías recargables de iones de litio.
o Las altas temperaturas degradan las baterías más rápido, pero siempre y cuando la temperatura sea inferior a 60*C (140*F) probablemente no haya un problema de seguridad.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp (link is external)… (link is external)(el enlace es externo).
• Para el almacenamiento a largo plazo (meses) lo mejor es guardarlas a una capacidad del 40-50%. (3.77-3.87V)
o http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_store_batteries (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
• Cuando no están en una linterna, las baterías deben estar siempre en una caja protectora.
o La protege de hacer corto y de daño físico.
o
o Nunca lleves las pilas sueltas en el bolsillo o en el bolso.
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1LjSuq0rk8 (link is external) (link is external)(el enlace es externo) <==
• No utilices baterías con daños físicos.
• Las baterías protegidas son generalmente más seguras que las baterías no protegidas.
o Las baterías protegidas llevan un circuito que protege de la sobrecarga y el exceso de descarga.
o Los circuitos de protección aumentan la longitud y anchura de la batería ligeramente. Las baterías protegidas no cabrán en todas las linternas. Conoce tu linterna.
o Algunas linternas tienen protección de bajo voltaje y cortarán en baja tensión. Conoce tu linterna.
o En algunas linternas de alto consumo se disparará el circuito de protección en una batería protegida para protegerse y requieren baterías no protegidas. Conoce tu linterna.
• Linternas multi-baterías tienen mayor riesgo que las linternas mono-batería.
o Si acabas de empezar es posible que desees limitarte a las linternas de una sola batería.
• Al utilizar linternas multi-baterías, para reducir la posibilidad de la descarga desigual entre baterías, es importante que todas las baterías:
o sean del mismo tipo,
o sean del mismo fabricante,
o tengan la misma capacidad (Ah),
o sean cargadas al mismo voltaje.
o Es posible que desee marcar las baterías para que pueda utilizar el mismo conjunto, todo el tiempo.
• Cargue las baterías en un lugar donde no haya material inflamable.
o Pon el cargador en un mostrador, no en el sofá.
• Nunca dejes las baterías desatendidas en la carga.
o Compruébalas periódicamente para asegurarte de que no están muy calientes. Templadas es correcto.
o Nota: hay diferentes opiniones sobre la frecuencia con la que necesitas comprobarlas.
o http://www.local10.com/news/local-10-investigates/lithium-ion-battery-bu (link is external)… (link is external)(el enlace es externo)
• ¡Las baterías dañadas pueden provocar incendios!

“Condiciones de abuso tales como carga excesiva, sobre-descarga y cortocircuitos internos pueden conducir a la temperatura de la batería a ir mucho más allá de las votaciones fabricante. A una temperatura crítica, se puede activar una cadena de reacciones exotérmicas. Las reacciones conducen a un aumento de temperatura adicional, que a su vez acelera la cinética de reacción. Esta degradación catastrófica auto-acelerada de la batería de iones de litio se llama fuga térmica.2”(el enlace es externo)
“ Durante las fugas térmicas, se pueden alcanzar temperaturas tan altas como 900 °C,3(el enlace es externo) y la batería puede liberar una cantidad significativa de inflamable y (si es inhalado en altas concentraciones) gas tóxico.4”(el enlace es externo)
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (link is external) (link is external)
• En el caso de un incendio de la batería de iones de litio buscar atención médica de inmediato.
o Si se quema o tiene fugas la batería Li-ion, produce fluoruro de hidrógeno. Los síntomas de los daños del fluoruro de hidrógeno no se aprecian de forma inmediata.
o “La batería puede liberar una cantidad significativa de inflamable y (si es inhalado en altas concentraciones) gas tóxico.4”
 Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
o Busque atención médica de inmediato. No espere hasta que experimente los síntomas.
o http://www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php?141137-Inhaled-vapors (link is external)… (link is external)(link is external)!!!
• Hay opiniones encontradas sobre el uso de imanes para crear un botón en baterías de tapa plana.
• No permitas que las baterías estén húmedas.
• No quemar las pilas.
• Deshágase de las pilas usadas adecuadamente.
o Canadá – http://call2recycle.ca/ (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
o Reino Unido – http://www.batteryback.org./ (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
o Estados Unidos – http://call2recycle.org/ (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
• Mantenga las pilas fuera del alcance de niños y mascotas.
o Cuando se ingiere, estas pequeñas baterías se atascan en el esófago (garganta). La saliva provoca una corriente eléctrica que provoca una reacción química que puede quemar gravemente el esófago en tan sólo dos horas.
o Un problema grave para los niños y las mascotas.
o Principalmente un problema con las pilas de botón, pero existe con todas las baterías.
o http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/kohls-injury-prevention-program/lit… (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
o http://www.emedicinehealth.com/battery_ingestion/article_em.htm (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)

Para leer más acerca de las baterías Li-Ion:
• Una letanía para principiantes: http://budgetlightforum.com/comment/904373#comment-904373
• Busca un post por “seguridad” – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/26665
• Seguridad de baterías Li-ion y guía de compras – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/16699
• Cuidados de seguridad Li-ion -http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_ion_safety_concerns (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
• Baterías basadas en Litio -http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_based_batteries (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)
• Química de baterías – https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18880255-ba (link is external)… (link is external)(link is external)
• Tipos de iones de litio – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types_of_lithium_ion (link is external) (link is external)(link is external)

Por favor, hazme saber lo que no he puesto o lo que he entendido mal.
¡Gracias!

La tecnología de las baterías cambia rápidamente. Por favor, comprueba la fecha de edición de abajo.

tom42
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Where does one obtain 18650-size primary cells?

Mr.Scott
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I've not seen a 18650 primary cell. It was discussed on CPF a while ago.

Even if they did make a 18650 primary cell I'm not sure it would work well in a flashlight. (I'm new to this but...) Lithium-Ion batteries are nominally 3.7 v. Primaries are generally ~1.5v (except for CR123A batteries which are 3.0v).

I assume you are asking about this because of the comment about storing flashlights in cars. In my cars I use Lithium primary (not Lithium-Ion rechargeable) batteries. I don't used alkaline because of the chance of leakage.

My nice car flashlight uses 2x CR123A cells. I also have a 1x AA flashlight as a backup. Both with Lithium.

 

hank
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Quote:
18650-size primary cells?

Never seen a primary (alkaline) in that size, but look for “4/3A” size cells. Might exist.

The “18650” li-ion was created as a same-size replacement for the 4/3AF NiMH cell, which was widely used in battery packs for computers and bike lights etc.

You can still find those for sale many places.

tom42
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Very helpful post. But the primary cells are only 1.5 volts

Someone on ebay was selling replacement insulating rings (the black ring shown in the above photo), handy things to keep around for repairing damaged cells. I think I saw adhesive backed ones.

Also, for making button tops onto flat topped cells, small brass nuts (imperial size #2-56 or #3-48) and low melting point (255f/124c) solder is a handy fix.

hank
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> primary cells are only 1.5 volts
That’s true for alkaline.

NiMH are only 1.2v

Change the driver if you want to use primary or NiMH in a flashlight set up for li-ion
You can find mention of drivers for 1xAA or 1xNiMH (search “LDCH” here)
MtnElectronics has a one-mode driver.

Size and chemistry constrain the voltage.

Mr.Scott
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Thank you gauss163. I’ve added something to the “Don’t use batteries with physical damage” section.

akhyar
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That is a great reminder from @gauss163

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gauss163 wrote:
a short requires only a very short metallic object to bridge the small 1/4 inch gap between the positive button terminal and the top edge of the can
Or a pair of needle-nose pliers being used to rip the buss strips off a salvaged pack! (Don’t ask me how I know that)

It’s scary, but if you let yourself flinch it probably won’t end too badly. I’d show you a picture but the example I made was recycled long ago.

Good tip! Thanks!

“There is no darkness but ignorance.”

Jack Kellar
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Segurança de baterias de íons-lítio (Li-ion)

Motivo:

Muitas das lanternas discutidas/resenhadas/modificadas em Budget Light Forum (BLF) utilizam baterias recarregáveis de íons-lítio. O uso destas baterias apresenta alguns riscos, e requer mais precauções do que pilhas alcalinas. Mas como é o caso com qualquer ferramenta, quando usada corretamente, os riscos apresentados podem ser manejados e mitigados.

Público alvo:

Esta postagem indica precauções de segurança para usuários com pouca experiância com baterias íon-lítio. Não é uma tentativa de prover um tutorial completo sobre baterias íon-lítio nem as razões técnicas de seus perigos. A intenção é que seja um ponto inicial.

Há e sempre haverá discórdia sobre as regras de segurança. Algumas destas regras podem não ser aplicáveis aos de vocês que foram assistentes de laboratório para o Doutor Goodenough (link externo, ver post original), porém com sorte elas serão adequadas a usuários mais novos. Você deve prestar atenção ao seu conhecimento e nivel de experiência.

Baterias recarregáveis de íon-lítio podem ser usadas com segurança nas aplicações corretas.
Baterias recarregáveis de íon-lítio são perigosas se mal-utilizadas.

“Condições abusivas tais como sobrecarga, descarga excessiva e curtos internos podem levar a temperaturas muito além do especificado pelo fabricante. Em temperaturas críticas, uma série de reações exotérmicas pode se desencadear, as quais levam a um aquecimento ainda maior, que por sua vez aceleram a cinética das reações. Esta catastrófica degradação auto-acelerada da bateria íon-lítio é chamada thermal runaway, ou escape térmico. Durante o escape térmico, a bateria pode chegar a até 900ºC, com a liberação de vapores inflamáveis e tóxicos se inalados em grandes quantidades.”
- Real Sociedade de Química

Mais leituras sobre baterias íon-lítio:

A Litany for Beginners: http://budgetlightforum.com/comment/904373#comment-904373 Search post for “safety” – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/26665 Li-ion Battery Safety and Shopping Guide – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/16699 Li-ion Safety Concerns – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_ion_safety_concerns (link is external) Lithium based batteries – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_based_batteries (link is external) Battery Chemistry – https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18880255-ba… (link is external) Types of Lithium Ion – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types_of_lithium_ion (link is external)

Por favor avisem se eu esqueci algo ou disse alguma coisa errada.

Obrigado!

A tecnologia de baterias muda rapidamente. Favor checar a data de edição abaixo.

The Miller
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Cool Jack Kellar, thanks for adding Portuguese translation!!

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The Miller wrote:
Cool Jack Kellar, thanks for adding Portuguese translation!!

All in a day’s work, my friend Hat

Mr.Scott
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Thank you very much Jack! I’ll add a link from the main post.

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Mr. Scott, thank you for this well done post. I just noticed the link in The Miller’s sig line. I’m always looking for something like this to refer new flashlight enthusiasts to. Nobody can cover every possible scenario but you have a very nice collection of the most important safety info here and I love all the translations. Nice work! Beer

Edit:
Thanks to your recycling links I just found a place on my route to work that will take not only lithium cells but the stupid CFL bulbs that I’ve been storing for the last year because nobody wants the stupid things and you shouldn’t throw them away because of all the nastiness inside those tubes. Thanks again!

unknown00101
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http://i.imgur.com/PoGEsss.gifv

Gif is too big to post. Just a reminder not to keep loose cells in your pockets.

The Miller
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auch!

Jack Kellar
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unknown00101 wrote:
http://i.imgur.com/PoGEsss.gifv

Gif is too big to post. Just a reminder not to keep loose cells in your pockets.

Wow that’s grim. Lucky him that it behaved more like a bottle rocket than a mini-bomb.

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18650 Li-Ion Battery Safety:

  • 18650 batteries should never be discharged below 2.5V.
  • Open circuit voltage of discharged battery (after resting period) should always be above 3.2V
  • Battery cell should be charged to the voltage level of 4.2V (full charge) before first use.
  • Do not use force to install (insert) li-ion battery.
  • It is important to use only li-ion chargers (with proper CC/CV charging) made specifically for li-ion batteries.
  • Exposing cells to extreme heat is very bad for rechargeable batteries (li-ion).
  • Situation when battery positive and negative connect is extremely dangerous. It is called short circuit – avoid at all costs.
  • Spare battery should be always kept in plastic case/holder. We usually include plastic protective batt. case with your 18650 cells.
  • Do not use chargers that are charging battery over 4.21V (discard that charger).
  • You should not charge Li-ion batteries unattended.
  • Try to put freshly charged batteries to rest for 10 min. before discharging them in your device.
  • Storing batteries for extended period of time (4 weeks and more) at full 4.2V will have negative impact on battery performance.
  • Keep in mind that storing batteries in dry, and cool conditions is very good and necessary to maintain good battery performance.
  • Never try to charge (or discharge) li-ion batteries with chargers that are not made for Li-ion batteries.
  • Discharging battery that is connected with reversed polarity is dangerous. Battery must be inserted with correct polarity orientation.
  • User should have enough knowledge on Li-Ion rechargeable batteries: in charging, discharging, handling, and proper storage before use.

Source: http://www.orbtronic.com/18650-battery

Enelooper
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“The charger should charge at 4.2V +/- 0.05V”

Charge AT, or charge TO?

Even then, my 18650s are 4.35V, so some of them can be charged beyond 4.2V.

SpaceCowboy
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That is general guidance for 99% of people who use 4.2V Li-ion for flashlights (and now for vape as well) .

Some batteries can be safely discharged to 2V. It would be very dangerous to even talk about 4.35V, and 2V.

For many people even this much info is too much.

I assume that people who are using 4.35V already know li-ion basics.

Charge at CC 0.5A or 1A then at CV 4.2V to 4.2V (cutoff 100mA - 50mA)

altonx
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unknown00101 wrote:
http://i.imgur.com/PoGEsss.gifv

Gif is too big to post. Just a reminder not to keep loose cells in your pockets.

How do you know those were loose cells? The title just says “Teachers E-Cigarette Explodes”
That would actually be way worse if they were properly installed in e-cig.

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This really helps. Thank!

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Nice thread. Thumbs Up

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Well I think I’ve discovered the answer to whether it’s safe to keep LiIon cells in a light in your car during the summer heat.

My old car just burned up tonight and in the center console was a Convoy C8 stuffed with an Efest 18650. The interior was totally engulfed in flames for about 8 minutes before the C8 went “pop” and flew out the open door onto the ground in a shower of bright white sparks which lasted about 5 seconds before subsiding. Just then the fire crew showed up and began doing what they could but of course by then the car was history.

The interior of the car was at least a couple hundred degrees+ for at least 6 minutes+ conservatively estimating before thermal runaway occurred. The light was in the closed center console which might have reduced it’s temps somewhat but given all that I saw tonight, I no longer have safety concerns for LiIon cells inside a light in my cars during summer’s heat. I’m sure it degrades the cells somewhat but I’m OK with that as long as they don’t self-ignite.

The fire started under the hood and I knocked it down 4-5 times before my extinguisher ran out. On the 3rd or 4th re-start I had the presence of mind to disconnect the car battery but something else was causing the re-ignition and I just didn’t have enough resources to win the battle. I quickly emptied the tool box etc from the trunk and was going for the dashcam and Convoy but the fire had gotten past the firewall at that point so no joy- time t stand back and watch. The cause of the fire was leaking power steering fluid which sprayed into something hot. It was at my nephew’s house and they have pics which I’ll add here later when I get them. The car was old with no fire coverage but I got my money’s worth from using it for 10 years so no great loss and I still have the work van and I’m OK so life goes on and I’ll get another car soon enough.

Phil

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SawMaster wrote:
Well I think I’ve discovered the answer to whether it’s safe to keep LiIon cells in a light in your car during the summer heat.

My old car just burned up tonight and in the center console was a Convoy C8 stuffed with an Efest 18650. The interior was totally engulfed in flames for about 8 minutes before the C8 went “pop” and flew out the open door onto the ground in a shower of bright white sparks which lasted about 5 seconds before subsiding. Just then the fire crew showed up and began doing what they could but of course by then the car was history.

The interior of the car was at least a couple hundred degrees+ for at least 6 minutes+ conservatively estimating before thermal runaway occurred. The light was in the closed center console which might have reduced it’s temps somewhat but given all that I saw tonight, I no longer have safety concerns for LiIon cells inside a light in my cars during summer’s heat. I’m sure it degrades the cells somewhat but I’m OK with that as long as they don’t self-ignite.

The fire started under the hood and I knocked it down 4-5 times before my extinguisher ran out. On the 3rd or 4th re-start I had the presence of mind to disconnect the car battery but something else was causing the re-ignition and I just didn’t have enough resources to win the battle. I quickly emptied the tool box etc from the trunk and was going for the dashcam and Convoy but the fire had gotten past the firewall at that point so no joy- time t stand back and watch. The cause of the fire was leaking power steering fluid which sprayed into something hot. It was at my nephew’s house and they have pics which I’ll add here later when I get them. The car was old with no fire coverage but I got my money’s worth from using it for 10 years so no great loss and I still have the work van and I’m OK so life goes on and I’ll get another car soon enough.

Phil

I’m really sorry to hear that and sorry insurance won’t cover it. It sounds like the power steering leak must have been pretty severe and being sprayed at just the wrong angle. Lots of cars leak all kinds of fluids. To me it sounds like the fluid some how may have being sprayed or flung onto the headers or header depending on the engine size. And those run around 1000 degrees. I’d have a hard time believing the heads would be hot enough to ignite it to flame, smoke yes. Only thing hot enough would be the header (exhaust manifold connected directly to the block) that’s just my speculation.
Your in good spirits about it though, which is good it could have always been worse lucky you were able to get out and not suffer burns. I’d say the interior if engulfed in flames was much hotter then 200 degrees. Flame is much higher, and a regular car fire can char a person behind recognition to where dental records are needed. So I’d say it seems very safe for the lithium batteries if it took 8 minutes in a car fire to explode. There is another thread on here where a guy is trying to make them vent and explode and the cells won’t do it. He is using imr cells I believe. at least you got your tools, maybe dashcam and your life. A new c8 is cheap. Glad your ok and not in a critical burn unit somewhere. And kudos to you for carrying a fire extinguisher. I don’t know of anyone who does. I keep a couple gallons of mixed coolant with me. That’s about all the firefighting I’d have

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Dimbo The Blinky
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Man! When you “smoke test” a flashlight…!!!

Thanks for “taking one for the team”! I too am glad you and your family are okay.

“There is no darkness but ignorance.”

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