Lithium-ion battery safety 101

You’re right. I was thinking Short being 5 minutes. Sorry I did not include an actual time frame.
1% tolerance in this case would be .042 volts so yes near .05 volts would be a reasonable variance.

Members should also realize that the health and even size of a cell can also effect voltage termination values.
My experience has shown that many times a smaller cell such as a 16340 may end charging at 4.17- 4.18 where as a normal 18650 on the same charger would come off at 4.20-4.22.
So if the user only were to try the 16340 cell they may think there is something wrong with the charger when this is not the case.
As in many things in life you are looking for a suitable safe range and not an absolute value on each and every cell.

I agree with your recommendation that the user chose a good name brand charger and not just an unmarked charger.


Well done, I am in awe that you took the time to do this, and I think that it has the potential to save an unknown number of li-ion battery users a whole deal of time/grief/injury.

I have some thoughts. What I am going to say comes from having worked with many people who are new to the field I work in and trying to be more effectively informative without wasting time or coming across as condescending.

1. Delete the first two paragraphs. You do not need to excuse yourself for trying to save people bodily injury. Acutely, the first paragraph could be a few pictures of people that have suffered such injuries due to the improper care of li-ion cells, although that may come across as offensive or heavy-handed to many. I think a quick explanation of the dangers of li-ion cells followed by a brief explanation of what is contained in the guide would suffice as a more pleasant alternative to that, but getting to the point quickly and concisely, especially in a thread designed on promoting safety, is important.

2. The section on a lithium battery fire is not substantially alarming. It needs to be much more of a noticeable bullet point. I’ve seen several “venting with flame” claims by manufacturers that seem to have the intention of assuring the customer that no real danger is present. The chemicals released during a li-ion fire are bad enough that medical attention is necessary immediately instead of the next day to prevent chronic problems.

I think you did a bang up job on this and I appreciate how much work it is to put something like this together, and I thank you for doing it. Kudos to you Mr. Scott.

Couple of concerns.

This thread is posted in the “Rechargeable Batteries” category not the “Rechargeable Cells” Category.
HKJ only seems to review batteries, not cells.
That is a lot of editing for this post.


Picky, picky, picky. “Cells” and “batteries” are generally understood to be the same thing by the average person, though when being picky there is a difference. In this context I’d say the terms are understandable and interchangeable- remember the audience and address them as they will best understand. When addressing noobs I usually put something like this: batteries (cells).

On the preambles, yes do shorten them. Simply say the guide is aimed toward the novice users and is not meant to cover every aspect of LiIon rechargeables but only to provide a general guide which will allow their safe use.

On chargers add more emphasis to the absolute need for known safe chargers. An under-performing cell can be safe in a good charger but no cell is safe in a poor charger.

On the dangers of cheap cells, add or link to venting with flame vids and pics; be graphic about how serious these dangers can be. Also add something more on not breathing the fumes at all as this is probably the most potentially harmful aspect of most venting episodes.

And I’m looking forward to seeing this get “stickied” and referred to regularly- it deserves no less!


Yep. combustion of the components is what produces hydrogen fluoride, and that’s the delayed-injury problem doctors need to think about.

The voltage drop immediately off the charger mentioned here should be added to his thread (unless its already there and i missed it)

Nice post Mr.Scott. Thanks.

This should be translated so as much nationalities can read up.

Here is the same in Dutch
Please other Dutchies, give me some corrections for grammer or wrongfully put scentences, being King Typo, surely there are many.

Doel publiek:

Deze post geeft een overzicht van veiligheid maatregelen voor gebruikers die nieuw zijn in het gebruik van Lithim-ion batterijen.
Dit is geen compleet overzicht over Lithium-ion batterijen en geeft geen technische redenen van Li-ion gevaren. Het is bedoeld als begin punt.

Er zal waarschijnlijk altijd wel wat onenigheid zijn over de veiligheidsregels. Sommige van deze veiligheid regels kunnen niet van toepassing zijn voor mensen die lab assistenten waren van Dr. John Goodenough, maar hopelijk zijn ze goed te gebruiken door nieuwere gebruikers. Je dient je bewust te wezen van je kennis en ervaringsniveau.

Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen veilig zijn als ze goed gebruikt worden.
Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen gevaarlijk zijn als ze niet goed gebruikt worden.

Koop kwaliteit batterijen.
Een paar centen besparen door batterijen van wellicht mindere kwaliteit te kopen is het niet waard.
Sommige goedkopere batterijen kunnen namaak zijn, of hergebruikt en dus een oude of slechte batterij herbergen onder de mooie nieuwe plastic buitenlaag.

Recycled "Grade C" 18650 batteries from China – 18650 Battery | BATTERY BRO (link is external)… (link is external)
Ervaren gebruikers kunnen batterijen uit andere apparatuur winnen, zoals notebooks.
Wacht met deze praktijken tot je ervaring hebt en de juist apparatuur voor je dit zelf proberen gaat.

Batterij reviews.
Batteries and chargers (link is external)

Koop en gebruik een goede oplader.
Ook hier is het belangrijk niet de goedkoopste route te bewandelen.
Een batterij van mindere kwaliteit kan veilig zijn in een goede lader, maar geen enkele batterij is veilig in een slechte lader.(quote van BLF gebruiker SawMaster)

Lees de reviews, en koop een merk batterij met een goede review.
Zaken om rekening mee the houden bij aanschaf:
Overlaad bescherming (Overcharge protection)
Polariteit verwissel bescherming (Reverse polarity protection)
Onafhankelijke kanalen zodat je verschillende type batterijen of batterijen die niet gelijk zijn ontladen an opladen op hetzelfde moment.
Hoe communiceert de lader met je, bijvoorbeeld met indicatie lampjes of een LCD scherm.
De lader moet laden met 4.2V +/- 0.05V, maar de batterij mag met een iets andere lading klaar zijn met laden.

laders reviews.
Batteries and chargers (link is external)
Koop en gebruik een multi meter.
Velen prefereren een digitale (Digital Multi-Meters (DMM))
Leer het voltage van je Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen te controleren.
Measurement on Flashlight (link is external)
Niet iedereen is van mening dat een DMM noodzakelijk is, maar de meesten zijn wel deze mening toegedaan.

Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen worden opgeladen bij: 0*C - 45*C (32*F - 113*F)
Ze kunnen worden ontladen (gebruikt) bij: 20*C 60*C (4*F 140*F)… (link is external).
Overlaad geen batterijen. het maximale voltage mag 4.2V zijn.
Ze slechts opladen tot 4.1V kan ervoor zorgen dat je ze vaker kan opladen
Een goede lader zal beschermen tegen overladen.
Sommige laders kunnen +/- 0.05V laden en dat is binnen de marge.
My charger do not charge LiIon to 4.2V, is it faulty?
Na het laden controleer het voltage van je Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen met je DMM na een korte rustperiode van ~5 min).
BU-409: Charging Lithium-ion - Battery University (link is external)

Velen zullen hun batterijen opladen als ze 3.5- 3.6V bereikt hebben.
Een Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij is uitgeput/ontladen als deze 2.7-3.0V bereikt. Herladen.
Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen lopen schade op als de ontladen zijn tot 2.5 volts.
Een Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij moet worden afgechreven (afgegeven recycle punt) als deze ontladen is tot 2.0 volts.
Geen batterijen opladen als het onder nul graden is. (0*C / 32*F)
Laat Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen niet te heet worden.
Als je een zaklamp in de auto wilt bewaren in de zomer, gebruik dan niet oplaadbare batterijen.
Hoge temperaturen zorgen voor slijtagedegradatie van de batterijen. Echter, zolang de temperatuur minder is dan 60*C (140*F) zal er waarschijnlijk geen veiligheidsrisico wezen. .… (link is external).
Voor langere opslag van Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen (voor maanden) kan men het beste de batterijen opslaan met 40-50% capaciteit. (Dus opgeladen tot 3.77-3.87V) (link is external)
Bewaar Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen altijd in een beschermende behuizing (zoals een plastic goed passend doosje) als ze niet in een zaklamp zitten. Z o kunnen ze niet kortsluiten of beschadigen.
Draag geen losse Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen in je zakken of tas. (link is external) <==
Gebruik geen Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen die uiterljke beschadigingen hebben.
Over het algemeen zijn batterijen met bescherming (protected) veiliger dan Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen zonder bescherming (unprotected).
Een beschermde (protected) batterij heeft electronica ingebouwd welke bescherming hoort te bieden tegen overladen en te ver ontladen.
Deze beschermende onderdelen maken de beschermde batterij wel iets langer en dikker.
Dus zullen beschermde batterijen niet in elke zaklamp passen, ken je zaklamp.
En zijn zaklampen die een laag voltage bescherming hebben en zichzelf uitzetten als de batterij leeg begint te raken, ken je zaklamp.
Sommige veel stroom gebruikende zaklampen zullen de bescherming van batterijen aan doen slaan en kunnen alleen werken met onbeschermde batterijen, ken je zaklamp.

Zaklampen met meerdere batterijen lopen meer risico dan zaklampen met een enkele batterij.
Als je nieuw bent in de zaklamp wereld, begin met een zaklamp die werkt op 1 Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij.
Als je zaklampen gebruikt met meerdere batterijen dan is het de bedoeling ze gelijk te laten ontladen en slijten en te voorkomen dat ze ongelijk zijn.
Het is belangrijk dat alle batterijen:
hetzelfde type zijn,
van dezelfde fabrikant zijn,
dezelfde capaciteit hebben (Ah),
geladen zijn tot hetzelfde voltage.
Je zal ze willen markeren om ze te herkennen en gebruiken als een set.

Het laden van Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen:
Doe dit op een plek zonder brandbare of licht ontvlambare materialen.
Plaats de lader op een ij voorkeur stenen ondergrond en niet op de bank.
Blijf in de buurt en laat de ladende batterijen niet onbeheerd.
Voel regelmatig of de batterijen niet te het worden, wat warm is goed maar heet niet.
Let op, er zijn verschillende meningen over hoe vaak te voelen beter te vaak dan te weinig.… (link is external)
Beschadgde batterijen kunnen brand veroorzaken!

Misbruik zoals overladen, te ver ontladen en interne kortsluitingen kunnen leiden tot een temperatuur die veel hoger ligt dan fabrikanten aangeven als veilig. Op een kritieke temperatuur kan er een ketting reactie ontstaan die exotherm is. Deze reactie zal tot nog hogere temperaturen leiden welke de (kinetische) reactie verder zal doen versnellen.
Deze catastrofale zichzelf versnellende afbraak van de Lithium-ion batterij heet een thermal runaway.
De temperatuur kan oplopen tot 900 °C.
De Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij ka een redelijk grote hoeveelheid brandbaar en giftig (als het de longen bereikt door inademen) gas produceren.
Royal Society of Chemistry Thermal-runaway experiments on consumer Li-ion batteries with metal-oxide and olivin-type cathodes - RSC Advances (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/C3RA45748F (link is external)

In het geval van brand en ontsnappend gas zoek onmiddellijk medische hulp.
Brandende of gas producerende Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen produceren hydrogen fluoride.
Symptomen van blootstelling hieraan zijn niet direct duidelijk,
“De batterij kan een flinke hoeveelheid brandbaar en (als ingeademd in hogere concentraties) giftig gas produceren.
Royal Society of Chemistry Thermal-runaway experiments on consumer Li-ion batteries with metal-oxide and olivin-type cathodes - RSC Advances (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/C3RA45748F (link is external)

Zoek onmiddellijk medische hulp, wacht niet tot symptomen merkbaar worden.
Inhaled vapors from battery!!! | Candle Power Flashlight Forum (link is external)!!!

Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen zijn er zonder knop en met.
Er zijn gemixte gevoelens om een magneetje te gebruiken om de batterijen zonder knoop bruikbaar te maken in zaklampen die er knop batterij nodig hebben.

Houdt Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen droog.
Verbrandt geen Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen.
Dank ze correct af (een stukje plakband over de uiteinden en afgeven bij recycle punt of verzamelbak batterijen.
Het is niet veilig om Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen te eten.

Asked several BLFers to do a translation kiriba-ru is going to do it to Russian.
X3 is looking into French

Dank je wel The Miller! I’ve never been translated before. :slight_smile:

Graag gedaan!

And hopefully more will come! You can brag your work has been translated in Russian, French, Dutch and who knows maybe/hopefully even more!
Wear a baret and the girls will flock to you :smiley:

I’ve added a link from the main post to your translation post so people can quickly jump down there.

Now I guess if I update the main post I should PM you and let you know which section/lines were updated so you don’t have to try to scan the whole post to find it. I believe I’ve incorporated all the feedback (except the battery/cell - sorry David) so I don’t anticipate many more changes.

But if anyone sees something please let me know.

Well done, Mr. Scott, the pictures solidify the point of the thread as well as add authenticity to it.

Thanks again for taking the time.

Nice work, Mr. Scott!!

Well researched, well presented, and much needed as well! I’m really looking forward to watching this baby grow!

I won’t even bug you over the gratuitous “burnt battery” picture, since your intended audience probably does need to be viscerally frightened into Paying Attention…

A Battery is composed of Cells.

Take a 9v Alkaline apart to see it in your own hands. What we call “packs” of 18650s, technically, are “batteries”. (So yes, IMNERHO, saying “battery pack” is just like saying “Sahara Desert”…)

If you take a cell apart, you’ll find goo (electrolyte) and guts (anode and cathode materials), but if you take a battery apart, you’ll just find cells.

depends how far apart, if you keep going you get the same as the cell

just ribbing ya :smiley:

Roger that, Your Typographical Highness!

Here is is in Icelandic:

Lithium-jón öryggi rafhlaða 101

Lithium-jón öryggi rafhlaða


Margir af vasaljós rætt / umsögn / modded í Budget Light Forum (BLF) nota litíum-ion rafhlöður. Notkun litíum-jón rafhlöður er að kynna nokkrar áhættu, og krefst meira en Varúðarráðstafanir alkaline rafhlöður. En eins og allir tól, Þegar það er notað á réttan hátt, áhættan er hægt að stjórna og minnka.


Þessi færsla lýsir Öryggisráðstafanir fyrir notendur gerðu eru að litíum-rafhlöður. Það þýðir ekki að reyna að afla a heill einkatími um rafhlöður litíum-né tæknilegum ástæðum Li-jón hættum. Það er ætlað sem útgangspunkt.

Það verður alltaf einhver ágreiningur um reglur um öryggi. Sumir reglur ritgerð um öryggi kann ekki við Þeir sem voru Lab aðstoðarmenn til Dr. Goodenough (hlekkur er ytri), en vonandi Þeir eru viðeigandi fyrir nýrri notendur. Þú þarft að vera meðvitaðir um þekkingu og reynslu þína.

Lithium-jón hleðslurafhlöðum er óhætt að nota þegar notað á réttan hátt.
Lithium-jón hleðslurafhlöðum getur verið hættulegt Þegar óviðeigandi notuð.

Kaupa góða rafhlöður.
Saving nokkrar smáaurarnir á hvað getur verið varasamt rafhlöður er ekki þess virði.
Sumir ódýrari rafhlöður geta verið fölsun eða kunna að endurvinna / endurheimta.
Recycled "Grade C" 18650 batteries from China – 18650 Battery | BATTERY BRO (Link er ytri)
http: // … (tengill er ytri)
Reyndir notendur gera uppskeru rafhlöður frá rafhlaða bakpoki.
Bíddu þar til þú hefur meiri reynslu af Li-jón áður en þú reynir.
BLF Community Battery Pulls Overview Thread (Laptop packs and Tool Packs)
Rafhlaða umsagnir.
Batteries and chargers (tengill er ytri)
Kaupa gæði hleðslutæki.
Þetta er annar staður að fara ekki ódýr leið.
An undir sig klefi geta vera öruggur í góðu hleðslutæki en ekki klefi er öruggt í fátækum hleðslutæki. (SawMaster)
Lestu umsagnir. Kaupa vörumerki með góðu endurskoðun.
Atriði sem þarf að íhuga:
Overcharge vernd.
Reverse pólun vernd.
Sjálfstæðum rásum svo þú geta ákæra öðruvísi rafhlaða tegundir eða útskrift stigum á Sametime.
Notendaviðmót gerði gefur þér það sem þú vilt. Gaumljós vs LCD skjá.
Hleðslutækið shoulderstand gjald á 4.2V +/- 0.05V, en rafhlaðan getur komið burt á mismunandi spennu.
My charger do not charge LiIon to 4.2V, is it faulty?
Charger umsagnir.
Batteries and chargers (tengill er ytri)
Kaupa og nota multi-metra.
Margir eins og stafrænn multi-metra (DMM).
Lærðu að athuga litíum þitt ion rafhlöður spennu.
Measurement on Flashlight (tengill er ytri)
Athugið: Ekki allir sammála þú þarft DMM, en margir mæla með þeim.
Hleðsla / afhleðsla
Rafhlöður má greiða á: 0 * C - 45 * C (32 * F - 113 * F)
Rafhlöður má tæmd á 20 * C 60 * C (4 F * 140 * F)
http: // … (tengill er ytri).
Ekki overcharge ekki rafhlöður.
Max spenna shoulderstand vera 4.2V.
Aðeins hleðslan 4.1V getur gefið þér fleiri endurhlaða hringrás.
Góð hleðslutæki kemur í veg fyrir yfir hleðslu.
Rafhlaða hleðslutæki heimilt að innheimta +/- 0.05V og enn vera í umburðarlyndi.
My charger do not charge LiIon to 4.2V, is it faulty?
Eftir hleðslu athuga spennu rafhlöðunnar þinnar með DMM þitt eftir stuttan (~ 5 mín) hvíld.
BU-409: Charging Lithium-ion - Battery University (tengill er ytri)
Ekki overdischarge ekki rafhlöður.
Margir kjósa að endurhlaða rafhlöður Þegar þeirra ná 3.5- 3.6V
Rafhlöður eru tæma Þegar þeir Nær 2.7-3.0v. Endurhlaða.
Rafhlöður byrja að þjást skemmdir ef losað í 2,5 volt.
Rafhlöður ætti að farga Ef þeir liggja að 2,0 volt.
Ekki hlaða ekki rafhlöður Þegar hitastigið er undir frostmarki. (0 * C / 32 * F)
Ekki láta rafhlöður fá of heitt.
Ef þú ert að fara að geyma vasaljós í bílnum í sumar, eru fyrst og fremst rafhlöður mælt yfir litíum-jón hleðslurafhlöðum.
Hátt hitastig draga frumur hraðar, en svo lengi sem afleysingamanneskja er minna en 60 * C (140 * F) það er sennilega ekki öryggi tölublað.
Overblown Concerns Over Li-ion Batteries Stored in Cars
http: // … (tengill er ytri).
Fyrir langtíma geymslu (mánuðir) það er best að geyma að minnsta 40-50% getu. (3.77-3.87V) (tengill er ytri)
Þegar það er ekki í vasaljós, rafhlöður shoulderstand alltaf vera í hlífðar burðarefni.
Þetta ver frá shorting og líkamlegum skaða.
Aldrei bera lausa rafhlöður í vasa eða tösku. (hlekkur er ytri) <==
Ekki nota rafgeyma með líkamlegum skaða.
Vernduð rafhlöður eru gen fylkja öruggari en varnarlausa rafhlöður.
Vernduð rafhlöður hafa hringrás innbyggður í sem ver frá yfir-hleðslu og yfir-sinnt.
Verndun hringrás auka lengd og breidd á rafhlöðunni örlítið. Vernduð rafhlöður mun ekki passa í allar vasaljós. Vita vasaljós.
Sumir vasaljós með lág spenna verndun og mun skera burt á lágu spennu. Vita vasaljós.
Sum hár Draw vasaljós mun ferð verndun hringrás í rafhlöðu verndað og varnarlausa þurfa rafhlöður. Vita vasaljós.
Multi-rafhlaða vasaljós hafa meiri hættu en einn rafhlaða vasaljós.
Ef bara að byrja út að þú vilt kannski að takmarka sjálfur til einn rafhlaða vasaljós.
Þegar þú notar multi-rafhlaða ljós, að draga úr líkum á ójöfnu rennsli milli rafhlöður, það er mikilvægt gerði öllum rafhlöður:
eru þau sömu tegund,
eru þau sömu framleiðslu,
hafa sömu getu (Ah)
eru innheimt á sama spennu.
Þú vilt kannski að merkja rafhlöður svo þú-getur notað sama mengi saman yfirvinnu.
Hlaða rafhlöður í stað þar sem það eru ekki eldfim efni.
Setja hleðslutækið þitt á borðið, ekki á sófanum þínum.
Aldrei láta hlaða rafhlöður eftirlitslaus.
Athugaðu þá reglulega til að ganga úr skugga um að þeir eru ekki að fá heitt. Warm er allt í lagi.
Ath: það eru mismunandi skoðanir um hvernig oft þú þarft að athuga.
http: // … (tengill er ytri)
Skemmd rafhlöður geta valdið eldsvoða!

“Misnotkun skilyrði:… eins og overcharge, yfir-útskrift og innri skammhlaup getur leitt til rafhlaða hitastig langt umfram framleiðanda einkunnir Á markhitastigið, keðju útvermnum viðbrögð geta verið af stað Viðbrögð leiða til frekari hlýnun, sem í snúa hraðar efnahvörfum lyfjahvörf. Þessi skelfilegar sjálf-hraða niðurbrot Li-jón rafhlaða er kallað varma runaway.2 ”(tengill er ytri)

“Á varma Runaway, Hitastig eins hátt og 900 ° C er hægt að ná, 3 (tengill er ytri) og rafhlaðan getur losað umtalsvert magn af burnable og (ef andað í háum styrk) eitrað gas.4” (tengill er ytri)

Royal Society of Chemistry\~~HEAD=pobj (tengill er ytri)

Í the atburður af a litíum-jón rafhlaða bruna leita læknis strax.
Burning eða loftun litíum-jón rafhlöður framleiða vetni úr vetni flúoríð fluoride.Symptoms meiðsli eru ekki strax í ljós.
“The rafhlaða getur losað umtalsvert magn af burnable og (ef andað í háum styrk) eitrað gas.4” (tengill er ytri)
Royal Society of Chemistry\~~HEAD=pobj (tengill er ytri)
Leitið læknis strax. Ekki bíða þangað til þú finnur fyrir einkennum.
http: // 141137 andað-gufur … (tengill er ytri) !!!?
Það eru blönduð skoðanir á með seglum að búa button-boli úr íbúð-toppur rafhlöður.
Ekki fá rafhlöður blautur.
Ekki brenna rafhlöður.
Farga skal rafhlöðum almennilega.
Það er ekki óhætt að borða Lithium-Ion rafhlöður.

Nánar lesa um Lithium Ion rafhlöður:

Litany fyrir byrjendur: BLF decision - #47 by 1dash1
Leita staða fyrir “öryggi” - LEDs & Other Stuff - (Reference Guide)
Li-jón Rafhlaða Safety og Shopping Guide - Li-ion Battery Safety and Shopping Guide
Li-jón Safety Áhyggjuefni - Lithium-ion Safety Concerns - Battery University (tengill er ytri)
Lithium undirstaða rafhlöður - BU-204: How do Lithium Batteries Work? - Battery University (tengill er ytri)
Tegundir Lithium Ion -\~~pobj (tengill er ytri)

Vinsamlegast láttu mig vita hvað ég hef misst eða hvað ég hef fengið rangt.


Rafhlaða tækni breytist ört. Vinsamlegast athugaðu dagsetninguna breyta neðan.

Ég givin ’henni allt sem hún fékk, Captain!
Breytt af: Mr.Scott á 03/07/2016 - 18:46

Who else wants to rock Google Translate for a few minutes?
(PS: The layout looks fine in the Editor Window, but not in the Preview. Posting to Know For Sure…)
(PPS: Yep. Looked fine in Google Translate (I translate back & forth to make sure), looked fine (for Icelandic) in the Editor window, looks like crap on Preview and Save. Sorry…)

i don’t get it

Besides, reports of my clown related demise have been slightly exaggerated

OW Ow 0w ow ow ow