[[ GXB20 Driver – Homemade Constant Current Programmable XHP50 Single-Cell Boost Driver! ]]

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ZoomieFan
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Simon, are you reading? Crown

Chargers: 1xBasen BD01 5/5, 1x Gyrfalcon All-88 4/5, LiitoKala: 3x100 3/5, 2x202 3/5, 1x402 3/5., MiBoxer C4-12 3/5.
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In all greatness, nice to see someone driver design knowledgeable with the same spirit as me (efficient boost & buck drivers).

SK98, nice choice; pretty popular. I see you've managed to fit that into its short shelf. 

May sound a tad weird but, would it be more or less easy-feasible to turn it into a boost/buck engine for 2S input? I mean, compatible with 2S li-ion input for bigger torches, even if it means the driver has to grow a bit. 

 

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The_Driver
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Buck drivers already exist (mtn electronics has one). The Boosting at high current is what makes this new driver interesting.

mrheosuper
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Can you change the boost voltage up to 12V
For driving xhp35 led

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A buck driver cannot regulate an emitter over the full battery input voltage range if it falls below what the emitter needs plus overhead, The_Driver. Also, a boost + buck engine could be made with a wide output voltage range and, with a few board/programming changes, allow for the desired input voltage cutoff (2.75V, 5.6V, custom values for different chemistries, etc) for over-discharge protection. Sort of a high efficiency universal driver.

 

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finges
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Recently I saw a 20mm 3A boost driver for 6V leds on kaidomain

http://kaidomain.com/p/S026606.H1-A-20mm-3A-1-cell-5-Mode-Boost-Driver-C...

Looks promising to me!

tuelleric
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finges wrote:
Recently I saw a 20mm 3A boost driver for 6V leds on kaidomain

http://kaidomain.com/p/S026606.H1-A-20mm-3A-1-cell-5-Mode-Boost-Driver-C...

Looks promising to me!

Interesting find!

I’d still love to see the GXB20/17 come alive, especially when it comes with the possibility to use an electronic switch.

loneoceans
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Quick update:

I put together a little setup to do a bit more testing and it looks like it's generally working. Also tested the low battery routines, modes, as well as over-temperature and it all seems to generally work out well!

For the record, this is with Firmware V0.8.

In addition, I had a friend who was making some PCBs so I tagged on a little on his order and got a small batch of 15 low-cost PCBs made:

I soldered up two of the boards as well as updated them with the newest firmware, and made them into a flashlight! I will be testing it in-real-life use for a while to see how it does but for now it does seem to be working as I had intended Smile

Finally if anyone is interested in playing with these, I'm offering 10 bare PCBs for sale for a token $3 each. I'll be putting up a more detailed page together with schematics and BOM soon. It's tricky to put together because of the small components but I figured maybe some people here will be interested. Unfortunately I will not be able to offer assembled drivers at this time.

Thanks everyone for following so far! I'll be testing out the flashlight extensively In-The-Field with the GXB20 over the next few days!

www.loneoceans.com/labs/

- Next-gen Switching Drivers: Lume X1 and Lume1
- High Power Boost Drivers: GXB100 GAN 100W, GXB172 17mm 50W
- Older: GXF22, GFS16, GXB17 & GXB20

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Thank you for the update. Your skills and perseverance in seeing your project through to completion are amazing!

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FlashPilot wrote:
Thank you for the update. Your skills and perseverance in seeing your project through to completion are amazing!

I couldn’t agree more. Beer

 

djozz quotes, "it came with chinese lettering that is chinese to me".

                      "My man mousehole needs one too"

old4570 said "I'm not an expert , so don't suffer from any such technical restrictions".

Old-Lumens. Highly admired and cherished member of Budget Light Forum. 11.5.2011 - 20.12.16. RIP.

 

texas shooter
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Considering the wattage potential what Copper weight or thickness are you using?

loneoceans
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texas shooter wrote:
Considering the wattage potential what Copper weight or thickness are you using?

Ideally I'd like to use 2oz copper, but for these cheap PCBs I'm using regular 1oz copper. That said, care was taken to reduce the total trace resistance for all high current paths and some additional solder masking was removed to allow extra solder to thicken the traces.

That said, the vast majority of the heat actually comes from the LED itself, so based on my quick tests, it doesn't quite seem to be a major problem using 1oz copper yet Smile

As a side note, I thought I'll draw a little state diagram showing the basic functionality. Also, I thought I'll use this thread to post some thoughts I have using the GXB20 so far:

[Edit - updated with latest V0.9 of the firmware]

Ideas for improving so far (will be continually updated):

  • LED in State 3/4 gets hot fast, and hits the 50/59C temperature within several minutes. Probably can increase Temp Limits. However this also really depends on the flashlight heatsinking / driver mounting etc... would it be a good idea (though more complex) to have pads for an external thermistor directly to the LED heatsink? Right now the thermistor is just sitting near the edge of the board along the ground plane. This has been improved in V0.9.

  • Implement some sort of clever PID control?

  • My SK98 switch / contact isn't actually that good and has significant voltage drop due to ohmic losses! Sometimes when using a cold battery, the under-voltage kicks in at power level 4  - either a better connection needs to be made to the case / battery, use a better host / switch, or drop the voltage cut-off 

    • Update - did some quick measurements with a LG HG2 high discharge cell. When supplying about 6A, the cell voltage quickly drops to about 3.8V. I also did a quick measurement of the switch resistance of the SK98 flashlight and found it to be very significant - about 80mR (this was measured by sending a constant 5A through and measuring the voltage drop across it). This means with just 6A flowing through the switch, a ~0.48V voltage drop occurs across the switch. Then there are 3 more connection points (2 screws and 1 press fit) to the ground plane of the driver, and it's very easy to hit the ~3V battery cut-off at high currents! Unfortunately this will be a problem with low-voltage single cells, without proper kelvin connections added into the flashlight.. 
  • So for 90CRI Of 4000K light at 1500++ lumens has been very nice indeed Smile Realistically though I think a 1000 lumen max is generally good enough and strikes a good balance between runtime and a single 18650 constraint.

www.loneoceans.com/labs/

- Next-gen Switching Drivers: Lume X1 and Lume1
- High Power Boost Drivers: GXB100 GAN 100W, GXB172 17mm 50W
- Older: GXF22, GFS16, GXB17 & GXB20

mrheosuper
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Woah, great work you did
I will definitely buy more than 1 when you releave to market

Forgot my pen

Down Time
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loneoceans, Wow! I have been a lurker here for about a year . Seeing your driver project has motivated me to register so I could get in line to buy a few of your boards. You have done an incredibly amazing job in such a short amount of time! I have three XHP50s sitting on my bench waiting to be put to good use. Your driver would open up several opportunities to build a compact sun!

I have sent you a pm.

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Any possibility of a parts kit with flashed mcu?

Three Tanna leaves to give him life, nine to give him movement. But what if he eats the whole bag?

Scott

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Rufusbduck wrote:
Any possibility of a parts kit with flashed mcu?

+1 please!

The Cycle of Goodness: “No one prospers without rendering benefit to others”
- The YKK Philosophy

loneoceans
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Thanks everyone for the good feedback. 

Rfusbduck, unfortunately I can't offer a parts kit but the components should be easy to order at your favorite electronics distributor. As for offering boards with a programming ATtiny84A, I think I should be able to do that  and maybe just $2 more but I'm currently out of parts so those interested drop me a message so I can order a few more controllers. This will be programmed with the latest firmware though any changes after - you'll have to program it yourself Smile 

I'm planning to keep 5 for myself for development and testing so I can only offer 10, so do let me know if you're interested! Again I'd like to reiterate that the board is very small as are the components, are may be tricky to put together if you don't have a decent micro-soldering or reflow/hot-air setup. Also it's currently still a 'prototype' in my mind, but it'll be fun to get some people playing with them and helping find bugs or issues Smile

Finally I wrote a quick page with the BOM, firmware, schematics etc:

http://loneoceans.com/labs/sales/gxb20v1

Hopefully this will be useful Smile

 

 

www.loneoceans.com/labs/

- Next-gen Switching Drivers: Lume X1 and Lume1
- High Power Boost Drivers: GXB100 GAN 100W, GXB172 17mm 50W
- Older: GXF22, GFS16, GXB17 & GXB20

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Aaah! I'd love to assemble one by hand. I can dissect stuff with my close-range sight (removed the loupe from my helping hands accessory, to me having that stuff right there is more of a hindrance than anything else, seriously). Smile

Wow! That stuff has a good deal of parts crammed into.

What is the maximum driving current this driver can handle without major issues? I say this because, well, you know some of you will want to raise the driving current “a bit higher”. I presume the driving current values are coded somehow in the ATtiny 84A flash, obviously related to what seems to be ≈90mV of “sense” reference voltage. Wink

High amp switches recommended. 

 

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Mike C
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Thanks for making it all available. I was skeptical it first, you are far from the first person to enter this forum with a thread like this. I was beginning to believe they where all the same person pulling the same joke. The Russian driver looked nice but the majority of us do not read Russian nor tolerate Google translated technical specs and discussions. Anyhow, a few questions if you don’t mind.

You are using a digital potentiometer. It appears to have 256 steps, but you are using 20 of them? If you used a potentiometer with different values (possibly with resistor in series), wouldn’t you be able to utilize all 256 steps for higher resolution? If so, this could be useful for implementing a ramping mode.

You are using the value of 20 for the 2770mA mode. Is 2770mA the roof of what your driver is capable of? If the value is increased to say 25, what would happen?

What would you need to do in order to boost an input voltage of 6V to 12V ? Or even from 3V to 12V?

I’m interested in trying out your driver and possibly adapting one for SRK usage, but will develop my own firmware as I prefer the AVR Studio environment over Arduino. I have made a few drivers and firmware based on the 84 already, so I’ll just stick with what I am familiar with. Would you send one or two bare boards to Sweden?

Edit: Another question if I may. On your website you wrote this: “LED brightness adjustment via constant-current limiting (no more PWM flickering!)”. I understand that the adjustment is done by constant current, but the LED still receives PWM because the output from the boost converter chip is PWM? Or have I misunderstood something?

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I’d probably mess it up then but thank you. Better that they go to someone like Mike. Please keep posting your results as this is a very popular driver notion.

Three Tanna leaves to give him life, nine to give him movement. But what if he eats the whole bag?

Scott

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Mike C wrote:
Thanks for making it all available. I was skeptical it first, you are far from the first person to enter this forum with a thread like this. I was beginning to believe they where all the same person pulling the same joke.

+100500
Mike C wrote:

The Russian driver looked nice but the majority of us do not read Russian nor tolerate Google translated technical specs and discussions. Anyhow, a few questions if you don’t mind.

If you mean SRK boost drivers that are used in Meteor, they were made by guy from Ukraine.
Mike C
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kiriba-ru wrote:
If you mean SRK boost drivers that are used in Meteor, they were made by guy from Ukraine.

Yeah, you’re right. It’s the Indigo driver I was thinking about. I had a quick look at those links Serp provided earlier in the thread and left faster than it took me to paste the URL into Google translate. Unreadable.
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Very interested in a 17mm edition with a nice firmware!

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Mike C wrote:
Thanks for making it all available. I was skeptical it first, you are far from the first person to enter this forum with a thread like this. I was beginning to believe they where all the same person pulling the same joke. The Russian driver looked nice but the majority of us do not read Russian nor tolerate Google translated technical specs and discussions. Anyhow, a few questions if you don't mind. You are using a digital potentiometer. It appears to have 256 steps, but you are using 20 of them? If you used a potentiometer with different values (possibly with resistor in series), wouldn't you be able to utilize all 256 steps for higher resolution? If so, this could be useful for implementing a ramping mode. You are using the value of 20 for the 2770mA mode. Is 2770mA the roof of what your driver is capable of? If the value is increased to say 25, what would happen? What would you need to do in order to boost an input voltage of 6V to 12V ? Or even from 3V to 12V? I'm interested in trying out your driver and possibly adapting one for SRK usage, but will develop my own firmware as I prefer the AVR Studio environment over Arduino. I have made a few drivers and firmware based on the 84 already, so I'll just stick with what I am familiar with. Would you send one or two bare boards to Sweden? Edit: Another question if I may. On your website you wrote this: "LED brightness adjustment via constant-current limiting (no more PWM flickering!)". I understand that the adjustment is done by constant current, but the LED still receives PWM because the output from the boost converter chip is PWM? Or have I misunderstood something?

Thanks for your comments and suggestions - here's a quick response to your questions. I say quick because I'm about done with a more detailed write up, though as I've found, the documentation is taking -wayy- more time than I had expected, and certainly much more than actually making the driver in the first place. I'm glad to have found this forum since it's given me a lot more motivation to work on this project and to hopefully make a 'commercial quality' product in the end instead of just an experimental hobby project.

About the digital potentiometer, - that's correct, when I was first designing the GXB20, keep in mind I did the entire schematic and layout all in a single day when I had nothing to do... I wasn't really expecting this to work as well as it did, but I didn't put as much thought into in as I would have for a product like this (since I was just making it for fun). Back then I wasn't aware of the flashlight community so I didn't think too much about the levels, and ramping etc. 

The digi-pot works in conjunction with an op-amp as a variable gain amplifier. There are some limitations as I have found, i.e. the gain adjustment was a little too cramped at the low end. I found that values 0 to 20 get you about the full range to 3A output. However you can increase this further by changing the current sense resistor to say 60mR, which would give you 0 to 40 but twice as much power dissipation in the sense resistor. Regardless, I do have plans to re-do this section to make use of the full 256 taps :). I also need to analyze the feedback more carefully to ensure that the system keeps within regulation and the loop response is kept in check.

The limit of the driver depends on various factors - power / heat dissipation, saturation of the inductor, PCB trace thickness etc. But as-is, the limit is currently set by the input current limit which is set via the 115kR resistor for just about 9A input. So it should be able to handle ~4A+ output, so I haven't tested it just yet. As for why it's 2770mA, that was due to a modification I made to the driver to test! Nominally writing 20 to the digipot with the default schematic values should give around 3A out. One of the main limitations I found with the digipot is the very high wiper resistance, especially at low drive voltages. So I'm looking to replace this part with another one. I'll update the firmware to reflect more accurate values. Smile

[edit] - My page has been updated with refined V0.9 firmware and code. Please discard the older one which was still under development.

As for boosting to 6V to 12V or 3V to 12V, this is all possible with this driver but I don't have a simple answer for it, since I'll have to redo the math on the magnetics to make sure they check out ok. But is it possible with some modifications, yes. 

I prefer Atmel Studio as well, but I decided to do it in the Arduino IDE because it's much more hobbyist friendly, so I thought that would be useful. Regardless this should be very straightforward to just port to use in Atmel Studio, or in fact any of your favourite IDEs.

Finally, your last question on PWM - no the LED receives a regulated constant current supply. You are right in that the switching state of the FETs in the converter operates like a PWM at the switching frequency. However the inductor in the boost circuit is key - it resists sudden changes in current flowing through it. So while the voltage across the inductor can look like a PWM, the output is sustained by both the output capacitor and the inductor current. As long as the time constant of the RC output is high compared to the switch period, the output voltage approaches a constant DC output voltage. 

As you can see above, the cyan line shows the output voltage, and you can see that the ripple looks to be fairly decent with no PWM :).

If you'd be interested in boards I can certainly send them to Sweden in a regular envelope. Drop me a PM if you'd like Smile

To conclude - I understand that there are certainly many improvements I can do to the GXB20 and I welcome all criticism and comments! I'm definitely not the best firmware and/or electrical engineer since I'm just doing this for fun, but it's been a lot of fun and if I can make something that the community can use, I think it's a worthwhile endeavor and hopefully people better than myself can use the details I've released as a starting point or even just for inspiration. Thanks!

www.loneoceans.com/labs/

- Next-gen Switching Drivers: Lume X1 and Lume1
- High Power Boost Drivers: GXB100 GAN 100W, GXB172 17mm 50W
- Older: GXF22, GFS16, GXB17 & GXB20

Mike C
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Thanks for your detailed answer. I know all about writing documentation Sick

I didn’t think about the inductor. My knowledge of these things are very limited. But yeah, great news on the constant current.

PM inbound.

Barkuti
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There are other well-known highly efficient drivers which make use of low ohmic value sense resistors: the LD-29 and LD-29S buck drivers. You may want to take a peek at the way these resolve the digipot + operational amplifier dyad, since they equip R025 and R020s. 

Efficiency is key to power handling. Since usually only a reduced amount of power can be wasted in the driver, it becomes clear high efficiency is a must for high power output drivers (and hell, preferably for any power level). This remembers me I'd been thinking in a way to get rid of the sense resistor. Please bear in mind I may speak some bollocks due to lack of proper technical background but, wouldn't it be possible to use the actual inductor direct current resistance (DCR) to feed the operational amplifier? This, of course, would require placing the inductor on the low side, or switching to difference/instrumentation amplifier setups.

By the way, 80mΩ on the torch's switch sucks. It may be time for a change to FET tail switches, there are some good & cheap small FETs with very low ESR which could be parallelled and gate driven with tiny button cells (a couple in series CR1620s, for example). Sounds right?

 

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loneoceans
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To quickly answer the question if I could drive the LED higher, I quickly did a test. I wanted to see what would happen with ~24W into the driver.

Driver seems to work just fine. This was with a measured 3.8V in at 6.32A, and as you can see an LED current of 3.26A with ~1850+ lumens of CRI90 light. Total efficiency was just around 88-89% including some LED wire loss, which is not too bad but still significant ~2.6+W dissipated just in the driver and wires! Things get warm fast, but the driver seems to handle it ok Smile

www.loneoceans.com/labs/

- Next-gen Switching Drivers: Lume X1 and Lume1
- High Power Boost Drivers: GXB100 GAN 100W, GXB172 17mm 50W
- Older: GXF22, GFS16, GXB17 & GXB20

arek98
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This is awesome!
This driver is also perfect for driving high power UV led from one Li-Ion as they have high Vf.

Barkuti
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Good, but I'd prefer to see how the figures are under a worst-case scenario.

Can it handle its duty well when the input voltage is barely above cutoff? At 3.01V, let's say. Smile

For these high drain duties, it'd be also a nice idea to set the cutoff a bit lower than usual, maybe 2.9 - 2.8V.

 

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BoxCarWillie
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Great job Loneoceans! Very impressive! Welcome to BLF! BTW, I do have small springs if you need some. Let me know what size you are looking for. You can PM me and I could send them to you free if you’re in the USA. Big Smile

Willie

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