Lithium-ion battery safety 101

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Mr.Scott
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Lithium-ion battery safety 101

Lithium-ion battery safety

 

Motivation:

Many of the flashlights discussed/reviewed/modded in Budget Light Forum (BLF) use Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Use of Lithium-ion batteries does introduce some risks, and requires more precautions than alkaline batteries. But like any tool, when used properly, the risks can be managed and reduced.

 

Nederlandse vertaling / Dutch Translation

Islandic þýðing / Islandic Translation

traduction française / French translation

Deutsche Übersetzung / German Translation

русский перевод / Russian Translation

Traducción al español / Spanish Translation

Tradução português / Portuguese translation

 

Target audience:

This post outlines safety precautions for users that are new to Lithium-ion batteries. It does not attempt to provide a complete tutorial on Lithium-ion batteries nor the technical reasons for Li-ion dangers. It is intended as a starting point.

There will always be some disagreement about safety rules. Some of these safety rules may not apply to those of you who were lab assistants for Dr. Goodenough, but hopefully they are appropriate for newer users. You have to be aware of your knowledge and experience level.

 

Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries can be safely used when used properly.
Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries can be dangerous when improperly used.

"Abuse conditions such as overcharge, over-discharge and internal short-circuits can lead to battery temperatures far beyond the manufacturer ratings. At a critical temperature, a chain of exothermic reactions can be triggered. The reactions lead to a further temperature increase, which in turn accelerates the reaction kinetics. This catastrophic self-accelerated degradation of the Li-ion battery is called thermal runaway.2"

"During thermal runaway, temperatures as high as 900 °C can be reached,3 and the battery can release a significant amount of burnable and (if inhaled in high concentrations) toxic gas.4"

Royal Society of Chemistry     http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f

 

 

Further reading about Lithium-Ion Batteries:

 

 

 Please let me know what I've missed or what I've gotten wrong.

Thanks!

 

Battery technology changes rapidly. Please check the edit date below.                                                                                 

Edited by: Mr.Scott on 01/22/2017 - 17:46
jacktheclipper
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The length and width of a protected cell is bigger

Mr.Scott
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jacktheclipper wrote:
The length and width of a protected cell is bigger

Thank you Jack! Post has been updated.

hank
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I’d recommend putting citations to sources behind the statements.
These batteries are “evolving” rapidly and the age, and source, for each belief is important to have on record.
I don’t mean you have to be responsible for pointing to the best source — just point to where you found what you felt reliable information, so people can go from there.

1dash1
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Regarding storage of batteries in a car during summer, there is some disagreement as to the actual risk:
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497

I’d suggest rewording the sentence to read:
“If you are going to store your flashlight in your car in the summer, primary batteries are recommended over Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries.”

And for some reason, the statement, “Protected batteries are safer than unprotected batteries,” irks me. Just a style issue. I would have phrased it, “Protected batteries are generally safer than unprotected batteries.” That’s because there are so many exceptions where unprotected batteries are as safe or safer than protected batteries. For example, PCB’s have been known to fail in multi-cell applications. Or the most simple example of a high quality unprotected cell versus a low quality protected cell. But I’m getting picky. Wink

Rule 1-1 as it applies to life, take it as it comes.

DavidEF
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All I want to say is: Thanks for putting this thread together! :GRADE:

Edit: Oh wait, as long as we’re allowed to be ‘picky’ here, it should be cell/cells rather than battery/batteries. Wink

Reason is not automatic. Those who deny it cannot be conquered by it. Do not count on them. Leave them alone.
-Ayn Rand

HereAgainAgain
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Is it normal for liIon cells to get a bit warm whist charging?
I’ve never felt any of mine go above ambient.

DavidEF wrote:
Oh wait, as long as we’re allowed to be ‘picky’ here, it should be cell/cells rather than battery/batteries. Wink

And not to be a knob,but what’s the difference? That’s one thing I’ve never seen explained.

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HereAgainAgain wrote:
Is it normal for liIon cells to get a bit warm whist charging?
I’ve never felt any of mine go above ambient.
DavidEF wrote:
Oh wait, as long as we’re allowed to be ‘picky’ here, it should be cell/cells rather than battery/batteries. Wink

And not to be a knob,but what’s the difference? That’s one thing I’ve never seen explained.

http://www.engineersedge.com/battery/cells_vs_batteries.htm I beat David to the punch Wink

HereAgainAgain
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Otanacious wrote:
http://www.engineersedge.com/battery/cells_vs_batteries.htm I beat David to the punch Wink

Cheers, makes sense now.

The Miller
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Thanks! beautiful thread!

Dimbo The Blinky wrote:

Here is is in Icelandic:
===================
Lithium-jón öryggi rafhlaða 101

Lithium-jón öryggi rafhlaða

hvatning:

Margir af vasaljós rætt / umsögn / modded í Budget Light Forum (BLF) nota litíum-ion rafhlöður. Notkun litíum-jón rafhlöður er að kynna nokkrar áhættu, og krefst meira en Varúðarráðstafanir alkaline rafhlöður. En eins og allir tól, Þegar það er notað á réttan hátt, áhættan er hægt að stjórna og minnka.

Markhópur:

Þessi færsla lýsir Öryggisráðstafanir fyrir notendur gerðu eru að litíum-rafhlöður. Það þýðir ekki að reyna að afla a heill einkatími um rafhlöður litíum-né tæknilegum ástæðum Li-jón hættum. Það er ætlað sem útgangspunkt.

Það verður alltaf einhver ágreiningur um reglur um öryggi. Sumir reglur ritgerð um öryggi kann ekki við Þeir sem voru Lab aðstoðarmenn til Dr. Goodenough (hlekkur er ytri), en vonandi Þeir eru viðeigandi fyrir nýrri notendur. Þú þarft að vera meðvitaðir um þekkingu og reynslu þína.

Lithium-jón hleðslurafhlöðum er óhætt að nota þegar notað á réttan hátt.
Lithium-jón hleðslurafhlöðum getur verið hættulegt Þegar óviðeigandi notuð.

Kaupa góða rafhlöður. Saving nokkrar smáaurarnir á hvað getur verið varasamt rafhlöður er ekki þess virði. Sumir ódýrari rafhlöður geta verið fölsun eða kunna að endurvinna / endurheimta. https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18852875-re... (Link er ytri) http: //www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1421555-chinas-sloppy-battery-industry-t … (tengill er ytri) Reyndir notendur gera uppskeru rafhlöður frá rafhlaða bakpoki. Bíddu þar til þú hefur meiri reynslu af Li-jón áður en þú reynir. http://budgetlightforum.com/node/32720 Rafhlaða umsagnir. http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable/reviews http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (tengill er ytri) Kaupa gæði hleðslutæki. Þetta er annar staður að fara ekki ódýr leið. An undir sig klefi geta vera öruggur í góðu hleðslutæki en ekki klefi er öruggt í fátækum hleðslutæki. (SawMaster) Lestu umsagnir. Kaupa vörumerki með góðu endurskoðun. Atriði sem þarf að íhuga: Overcharge vernd. Reverse pólun vernd. Sjálfstæðum rásum svo þú geta ákæra öðruvísi rafhlaða tegundir eða útskrift stigum á Sametime. Notendaviðmót gerði gefur þér það sem þú vilt. Gaumljós vs LCD skjá. Hleðslutækið shoulderstand gjald á 4.2V +/- 0.05V, en rafhlaðan getur komið burt á mismunandi spennu. http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344 Charger umsagnir. http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers/reviews http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (tengill er ytri) Kaupa og nota multi-metra. Margir eins og stafrænn multi-metra (DMM). Lærðu að athuga litíum þitt ion rafhlöður spennu. http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/Measurement%20UK.html (tengill er ytri) Athugið: Ekki allir sammála þú þarft DMM, en margir mæla með þeim. Hleðsla / afhleðsla Rafhlöður má greiða á: 0 * C – 45 * C (32 * F – 113 * F) Rafhlöður má tæmd á -20 * C – 60 * C (-4 F * – 140 * F) http: //batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp … (tengill er ytri). Ekki overcharge ekki rafhlöður. Max spenna shoulderstand vera 4.2V. Aðeins hleðslan 4.1V getur gefið þér fleiri endurhlaða hringrás. Góð hleðslutæki kemur í veg fyrir yfir hleðslu. Rafhlaða hleðslutæki heimilt að innheimta +/- 0.05V og enn vera í umburðarlyndi. http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344 Eftir hleðslu athuga spennu rafhlöðunnar þinnar með DMM þitt eftir stuttan (~ 5 mín) hvíld. http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_lithium_ion_batteries (tengill er ytri) Ekki overdischarge ekki rafhlöður. Margir kjósa að endurhlaða rafhlöður Þegar þeirra ná 3.5- 3.6V Rafhlöður eru tæma Þegar þeir Nær 2.7-3.0v. Endurhlaða. Rafhlöður byrja að þjást skemmdir ef losað í 2,5 volt. Rafhlöður ætti að farga Ef þeir liggja að 2,0 volt. Ekki hlaða ekki rafhlöður Þegar hitastigið er undir frostmarki. (0 * C / 32 * F) Ekki láta rafhlöður fá of heitt. Ef þú ert að fara að geyma vasaljós í bílnum í sumar, eru fyrst og fremst rafhlöður mælt yfir litíum-jón hleðslurafhlöðum. Hátt hitastig draga frumur hraðar, en svo lengi sem afleysingamanneskja er minna en 60 * C (140 * F) það er sennilega ekki öryggi tölublað. http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497 http: //batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp … (tengill er ytri). Fyrir langtíma geymslu (mánuðir) það er best að geyma að minnsta 40-50% getu. (3.77-3.87V) http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_store_batteries (tengill er ytri) Þegar það er ekki í vasaljós, rafhlöður shoulderstand alltaf vera í hlífðar burðarefni. Þetta ver frá shorting og líkamlegum skaða. Aldrei bera lausa rafhlöður í vasa eða tösku. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1LjSuq0rk8 (hlekkur er ytri) <== Ekki nota rafgeyma með líkamlegum skaða. Vernduð rafhlöður eru gen fylkja öruggari en varnarlausa rafhlöður. Vernduð rafhlöður hafa hringrás innbyggður í sem ver frá yfir-hleðslu og yfir-sinnt. Verndun hringrás auka lengd og breidd á rafhlöðunni örlítið. Vernduð rafhlöður mun ekki passa í allar vasaljós. Vita vasaljós. Sumir vasaljós með lág spenna verndun og mun skera burt á lágu spennu. Vita vasaljós. Sum hár Draw vasaljós mun ferð verndun hringrás í rafhlöðu verndað og varnarlausa þurfa rafhlöður. Vita vasaljós. Multi-rafhlaða vasaljós hafa meiri hættu en einn rafhlaða vasaljós. Ef bara að byrja út að þú vilt kannski að takmarka sjálfur til einn rafhlaða vasaljós. Þegar þú notar multi-rafhlaða ljós, að draga úr líkum á ójöfnu rennsli milli rafhlöður, það er mikilvægt gerði öllum rafhlöður: eru þau sömu tegund, eru þau sömu framleiðslu, hafa sömu getu (Ah) eru innheimt á sama spennu. Þú vilt kannski að merkja rafhlöður svo þú-getur notað sama mengi saman yfirvinnu. Hlaða rafhlöður í stað þar sem það eru ekki eldfim efni. Setja hleðslutækið þitt á borðið, ekki á sófanum þínum. Aldrei láta hlaða rafhlöður eftirlitslaus. Athugaðu þá reglulega til að ganga úr skugga um að þeir eru ekki að fá heitt. Warm er allt í lagi. Ath: það eru mismunandi skoðanir um hvernig oft þú þarft að athuga. http: //www.local10.com/news/local-10-investigates/lithium-ion-battery-bu … (tengill er ytri) Skemmd rafhlöður geta valdið eldsvoða!

“Misnotkun skilyrði:.. eins og overcharge, yfir-útskrift og innri skammhlaup getur leitt til rafhlaða hitastig langt umfram framleiðanda einkunnir Á markhitastigið, keðju útvermnum viðbrögð geta verið af stað Viðbrögð leiða til frekari hlýnun, sem í snúa hraðar efnahvörfum lyfjahvörf. Þessi skelfilegar sjálf-hraða niðurbrot Li-jón rafhlaða er kallað varma runaway.2 “(tengill er ytri)

“Á varma Runaway, Hitastig eins hátt og 900 ° C er hægt að ná, 3 (tengill er ytri) og rafhlaðan getur losað umtalsvert magn af burnable og (ef andað í háum styrk) eitrað gas.4” (tengill er ytri)

Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f~~HEAD=pobj (tengill er ytri)

Í the atburður af a litíum-jón rafhlaða bruna leita læknis strax. Burning eða loftun litíum-jón rafhlöður framleiða vetni úr vetni flúoríð fluoride.Symptoms meiðsli eru ekki strax í ljós. “The rafhlaða getur losað umtalsvert magn af burnable og (ef andað í háum styrk) eitrað gas.4” (tengill er ytri) Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f~~HEAD=pobj (tengill er ytri) Leitið læknis strax. Ekki bíða þangað til þú finnur fyrir einkennum. http: //www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php 141137 andað-gufur … (tengill er ytri) !!!? Það eru blönduð skoðanir á með seglum að búa button-boli úr íbúð-toppur rafhlöður. Ekki fá rafhlöður blautur. Ekki brenna rafhlöður. Farga skal rafhlöðum almennilega. Það er ekki óhætt að borða Lithium-Ion rafhlöður.

Nánar lesa um Lithium Ion rafhlöður:

Litany fyrir byrjendur: http://budgetlightforum.com/comment/904373#comment-904373 Leita staða fyrir “öryggi” – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/26665 Li-jón Rafhlaða Safety og Shopping Guide – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/16699 Li-jón Safety Áhyggjuefni – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_ion_safety_concerns (tengill er ytri) Lithium undirstaða rafhlöður – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_based_batteries (tengill er ytri) Tegundir Lithium Ion – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types_of_lithium_ion~~pobj (tengill er ytri) Vinsamlegast láttu mig vita hvað ég hef misst eða hvað ég hef fengið rangt.

Takk!

Rafhlaða tækni breytist ört. Vinsamlegast athugaðu dagsetninguna breyta neðan.

Ég givin ‘henni allt sem hún fékk, Captain!
Breytt af: Mr.Scott á 03/07/2016 – 18:46
=========================

Who else wants to rock Google Translate for a few minutes?
(PS: The layout looks fine in the Editor Window, but not in the Preview. Posting to Know For Sure…)
(PPS: Yep. Looked fine in Google Translate (I translate back & forth to make sure), looked fine (for Icelandic) in the Editor window, looks like crap on Preview and Save. Sorry…)

X3 wrote:
Précautions concernant les batteries Lithium-ion

Motivation :
La plupart des discussions/tests/modifications sur le forum BudgetLightForum (BLF) concernent des lampes de poche qui utilisent des batteries Lithium-ion rechargeables. L’utilisation de batteries Lithium-ion implique des risques, et requière plus de précautions que les batteries alcalines. Mais comme tout outil, lorsque qu’elles sont utilisées correctement, les risques peuvent être réduits et maîtrisés.

Cible :
Ce sujet souligne les précautions de sécurité pour les utilisateurs qui sont novices dans l’utilisation de ces batteries. Il ne s’agit pas d’un tutoriel complet sur les batteries Lithium-ion, ni d’explications techniques du danger de ces batteries. Il s’agit d’un point de départ.
Il y aura toujours des désaccords au sujet des règles de sécurité. Certaines de ces règles peuvent ne pas s’applique à ceux d’entre vous qui ont été assistants de laboratoire pour le “Dr Goodenough”:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Goodenough , mais elle sont pertinentes pour les utilisateurs les plus novices. Vous devez être conscients de votre niveau de connaissance et d’expérience.
Les batteries Lithium-ion rechargeables correctement utilisées peuvent être sûres.
Les batteries Lithium-ion utilisées de façon inadéquate peuvent être dangereuses.
Achetez des batteries de qualité.
Economiser quelques centimes dans ce qui pourrait être des batteries douteuses ne vaut pas le coup.
Certaines batteries moins chères pourraient être contrefaites ou de récupération.
https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18852875-re...(link is external)
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1421555-chinas-sloppy-battery-industry-t…(link is external)
Les utilisateurs expérimentés récupèrent des batteries dans des packs d’accumulateurs (type PC portable)
Attendez d’avoir un peu plus d’expérience avant d’essayer cela.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/32720
Tests de batteries
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html(link is external)
Achetez un chargeur de qualité.
Un deuxième sujet à ne pas négliger.

Une batterie de faible qualité peut être sûre dans un chargeur de bonne qualité mais aucune batterie n’est sûre dans un chargeur de piètre qualité. (SawMaster)
Lisez les essais/tests. Achetez un chargeur de qualité d’une marque reconnue avec de bons avis.
Les points à prendre en considération :
Protection contre la surcharge
Protection contre les inversions de polarité
Des canaux indépendants pour pouvoir charger et décharger des batteries de différents type en même temps.
Une interface utilisateur qui vous indique ce que vous voulez savoir. LED d’indication ou écran LCD.
Le chargeur doit charger à 4,20V +/- 0,05V, mais The charger should charge at 4.2V +/- 0.05V, but the battery may come off at a different voltage.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
Essais de chargeurs :
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html(link is external)
Achetez et utilisez un multimetre .
Beaucoup préfèrent un multimetre à affichage LCD (DMM).
Apprenez à vérifier la tension de vos batteries Lithium-ion.
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/Measurement%20UK.html(link is external)
Nota : l’utilité d’un multimetre ne fait pas l’unanimité, mais beaucoup de personnes les recommandent.
Charge/décharge
Les batteries peuvent être chargées entre 0*C et 45*C (32*F – 113*F)
Les batteries peuvent être déchargées entre -20*C et 60*C (-4*F – 140*F)
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp…(link is external).
Ne surchargez pas vos batteries.
La tension maximum doit être 4.2V.
Ne charger que jusqu’à 4.1V allongera la durée de vie de la batterie.
Un bon chargeur de batteries aide à éviter la surcharge.
Les chargeurs de batteries peuvent charger à +/- 0.05V et être dans les tolérances quand même.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
Après la recharge, verifiéz la tension de vos batteries avec votre multimètre après 5min de repos.
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_lithium_ion_batteries(link is external)
Ne déchargez pas vos batteries à l’excès
La majorité des gens choisissent de recharger leurs batteries lorsqu’elles atteignent 3,5V à 3,6V
Une batterie est vide lorsqu’elle atteint 3,0V il faut alors la recharger.
Une batterie commence à se dégrader si elle atteint 2,5V.
Une batterie qui a atteint 2,0V doit être recyclé (ne pas l’utiliser).
Ne chargez pas vos batteries si la température estr en dessous de zéro degrés Celcius. (0*C / 32*F)
Ne laissez pas vos batteries devenir trop chaudes.
Si vous voulez stocker des batteries dans votre voiture l’été, choisissez des piles non-rechargeables au Lithium à la place des batteries.
Les hautes températures dégradent les batteries plus vite, mais en dessous de 60°C il n’y a probablement pas de risque.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp…(link is external).
Pour le stockage longue durée (plusieurs mois), il est préférable de stocker les batteries à 40-50% de charge (3,77 à 3,87V)
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_store_batteries(link is external)
Lorsqu’elles ne sont pas dans une lampe de poche, les batteries devraient être stockées dans des boites de protection/transport.
Cela les protège contre les courts-circuits et les chocs.

Ne transportez jamais de batteries librement dans votre sac ou vos poches.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1LjSuq0rk8(link is external) <==
N’utilisez pas une batterie physiquement endommagée.
Les batteries protégées sont en général plus sûre que les batteries nues.
Les batteries protégées sont équipées d’un circuit qui les protège contre la surcharge et la décharge excessive.
Le circuit de protection accroît la longueur de la batterie, et son diamètre. Les batteries protégées ne logent pas dans toutes les lampes de poche. Vérifiez vos lampes, sachez lesquelles sont compatibles.
Certaines lampes de poche ont une protection contre les tensions basses (pour protéger vos batteries). Connaissez vos lampes de poches !
Certaines lampes à fort courant peuvent déclancher le circuit de protection de votre batterie, et nécessitent donc une batterie non protégée. Connaissez vos lampes de =poches !
Les lampes de poches à plusieurs batteries comportent plus de risques que les lampes à une seule batterie.
Si vous débutez juste, il est judicieux de commencer par des modèles à une seule batterie.
Lorsque vous utilisez des lampes à plusieurs batteries, et afin de réduite les risques de décharge inégale entre les batteries, il est important que vos batteries :
soient du même type,
soient de même marque et modèle,
aient la même capacité (mAh),
soient chargées à la même tension,
L’idéal est de marquer vos batteries pour être sûr d’utiliser toujours les mêmes ensemble.
Chargez vos batteries dans un endroit qui ne comporte pas de matière inflammable.
Placez le charger sur un meuble, pas dans votre canapé !
Ne laissez jamais des batteries en charge sans surveillance.
Vérifiez les régulièrement pour être sûr qu’elles ne chauffent pas trop. Tiède, c’est normal, brûlant non !
Nota : il y a différents opinions sur la fréquence de ces vérifications.
http://www.local10.com/news/local-10-investigates/lithium-ion-battery-bu…(link is external)
Une batterie endommagée peut provoquer un incendie !

“Des conditions extrèmes tels que la surcharge , une décharge et les courts-circuits internes peuvent conduire à des températures de batterie bien au-delà des caractéristiques du fabricant . À une température critique, une chaîne de réactions exothermiques peut être déclenchée. Ces réactions conduisent à une augmentation supplémentaire de la température, ce qui accélère la cinétique de la réaction. Cette dégradation de l’auto- accélération catastrophique de la batterie Li -ion est appelé emballement thermique
.2”(link is external)
Au cours de l’emballement thermique , des températures jusqu’à 900 ° C peuvent être atteintes, et la batterie peut libérer une quantité importante de combustible et ( en cas d’inhalation dans des concentrations élevées ) des gaz toxiques.
.4”(link is external)
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f(link is external)
Dans le cas d’un incendie impliquant des batteries lithium-ion, consultez un médecin immédiatement.
Brûler ou ouvrir une batterie lithium-ion produit du fluorure d’hydrogène. Les symptômes dûes à l’exposition au fluorure d’hydrogène ne sont pas immédiatement vissibles.
“la batterie peut émettre une quantité non négligeable de gaz inflammable et (inhalé dans de grandes quantités) toxique.4”(link is external)
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f(link is external)
Consultez immédiatement un médecin. N’attendez pas de ressentir des symptômes.
http://www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php?141137-Inhaled-vapors…(link is external)!!!
Il y a différentes opinions concernant l’usage d’aimants pour créer un contact “bouton” sur un contact “plat”.
Ne mouillez pat vos batteries.
Ne brûlez pas de batteries.
Recyclez vos batteries de façon responsable (points de collecte).
Il n’ets pas recommandé de manger des batteries Lithium-ion, en cas de grosse faim, pensez aux piles Alcaline.

Plus de lecture sur le sujet :
Une litanie pour débutants : http://budgetlightforum.com/comment/904373#comment-904373
Faites une recherche de sujet avec le mot-clé “safety” – http://budgetlightforum.com/node/26665
Précautions d’emploi et guide d’achat des batteries lithium-ion : http://budgetlightforum.com/node/16699
Précautions d’usage http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_ion_safety_concerns(link is external)
Batteries à base de Lithium http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lithium_based_batteries(link is external)
Types de Lithiuim-ion – http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types_of_lithium_ion

Muto
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Great info, looks pretty complete and easy to read.

One thing that you may want to expound upon is;

“Don’t over charge your batteries.
Max voltage should be 4.2V”

Maybe explain that most chargers have a tolerance of 1%, so for instance 4.22 volts is not a problem.
Hate to see new members obsess over .02-.04 volts.
Also all voltages should be measured after a short “rest period” and not instantly after coming off charger.

This also does not cover LifePo 3.2 volt or 4.3, 4.35 batteries, but that is another show as they say

Thanks for putting this list together Mr. Scott
Later,
Keith

Carpe Noctem People! ___________
“All men are equal when their memory fades. *******************But it’s is Like it is*************
“Stay Calm, don’t be alarmed. It’s just another Holiday, Back at the Funny Farm” ………………………………….

Mr.Scott
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hank wrote:
I’d recommend putting citations to sources behind the statements. These batteries are “evolving” rapidly and the age, and source, for each belief is important to have on record. I don’t mean you have to be responsible for pointing to the best source — just point to where you found what you felt reliable information, so people can go from there.

Hank,

Thanks for the comment. References are good. Unfortunately I’ve been copy-and-pasting things into a word file as I came across them and haven’t been saving the references. I will attempt to find as many citations as I can.

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1dash1 wrote:
Regarding storage of batteries in a car during summer, there is some disagreement as to the actual risk:
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497

I’d suggest rewording the sentence to read:
“If you are going to store your flashlight in your car in the summer, primary batteries are recommended over Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries.”

And for some reason, the statement, “Protected batteries are safer than unprotected batteries,” irks me. Just a style issue. I would have phrased it, “Protected batteries are generally safer than unprotected batteries.” That’s because there are so many exceptions where unprotected batteries are as safe or safer than protected batteries. For example, PCB’s have been known to fail in multi-cell applications. Or the most simple example of a high quality unprotected cell versus a low quality protected cell. But I’m getting picky. Wink

Done and done. Thank you! Picky is fine.

hank
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> copy-and-pasting thing into a word file

If you still have the original text you copied and pasted, just paste a chunk of it back into a Google search as a quoted string; likely it’ll take you right to where it first appeared.

If not, at least, going forward, it’s easy to capture the source URL as well as the words you want, which will help as this evolved.

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This should absolutely be a sticky.

Curiosity killed the cat……But I’m not a cat…..

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Muto wrote:
Great info, looks pretty complete and easy to read.

One thing that you may want to expound upon is;

“Don’t over charge your batteries.
Max voltage should be 4.2V”

Maybe explain that most chargers have a tolerance of 1%, so for instance 4.22 volts is not a problem.
Hate to see new members obsess over .02-.04 volts.
Also all voltages should be measured after a short “rest period” and not instantly after coming off charger.

This also does not cover LifePo 3.2 volt or 4.3, 4.35 batteries, but that is another show as they say

Thanks for putting this list together Mr. Scott
Later,
Keith

What is “short” with respect to “a short rest period”? As a newbie that is one of my first thoughts.

I thought I’d read that tolerances were +/- 0.05v for chargers. Of course I can’t find the citation right now. >:-/

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A few minutes should be fine for accurate voltage measuring. Wait until the cells cool down to use them in their respective device.

Curiosity killed the cat……But I’m not a cat…..

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Mr.Scott wrote:

What is “short” with respect to “a short rest period”? As a newbie that is one of my first thoughts.

I thought I’d read that tolerances were +/- 0.05v for chargers. Of course I can’t find the citation right now. >:-/

You’re right. I was thinking Short being 5 minutes. Sorry I did not include an actual time frame.
1% tolerance in this case would be .042 volts so yes near .05 volts would be a reasonable variance.

Members should also realize that the health and even size of a cell can also effect voltage termination values.
My experience has shown that many times a smaller cell such as a 16340 may end charging at 4.17- 4.18 where as a normal 18650 on the same charger would come off at 4.20-4.22.
So if the user only were to try the 16340 cell they may think there is something wrong with the charger when this is not the case.
As in many things in life you are looking for a suitable safe range and not an absolute value on each and every cell.

I agree with your recommendation that the user chose a good name brand charger and not just an unmarked charger.
Thanks

Carpe Noctem People! ___________
“All men are equal when their memory fades. *******************But it’s is Like it is*************
“Stay Calm, don’t be alarmed. It’s just another Holiday, Back at the Funny Farm” ………………………………….

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MR. SCOTT, WELL DONE!!!!

Well done, I am in awe that you took the time to do this, and I think that it has the potential to save an unknown number of li-ion battery users a whole deal of time/grief/injury.

I have some thoughts. What I am going to say comes from having worked with many people who are new to the field I work in and trying to be more effectively informative without wasting time or coming across as condescending.

1. Delete the first two paragraphs. You do not need to excuse yourself for trying to save people bodily injury. Acutely, the first paragraph could be a few pictures of people that have suffered such injuries due to the improper care of li-ion cells, although that may come across as offensive or heavy-handed to many. I think a quick explanation of the dangers of li-ion cells followed by a brief explanation of what is contained in the guide would suffice as a more pleasant alternative to that, but getting to the point quickly and concisely, especially in a thread designed on promoting safety, is important.

2. The section on a lithium battery fire is not substantially alarming. It needs to be much more of a noticeable bullet point. I’ve seen several “venting with flame” claims by manufacturers that seem to have the intention of assuring the customer that no real danger is present. The chemicals released during a li-ion fire are bad enough that medical attention is necessary immediately instead of the next day to prevent chronic problems.

I think you did a bang up job on this and I appreciate how much work it is to put something like this together, and I thank you for doing it. Kudos to you Mr. Scott.

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DavidEF wrote:
All I want to say is: Thanks for putting this thread together! :GRADE:

Edit: Oh wait, as long as we’re allowed to be ‘picky’ here, it should be cell/cells rather than battery/batteries. Wink

Couple of concerns.

This thread is posted in the “Rechargeable Batteries” category not the “Rechargeable Cells” Category.
HKJ only seems to review batteries, not cells.
That is a lot of editing for this post.

Smile
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Picky, picky, picky. “Cells” and “batteries” are generally understood to be the same thing by the average person, though when being picky there is a difference. In this context I’d say the terms are understandable and interchangeable- remember the audience and address them as they will best understand. When addressing noobs I usually put something like this: batteries (cells).

On the preambles, yes do shorten them. Simply say the guide is aimed toward the novice users and is not meant to cover every aspect of LiIon rechargeables but only to provide a general guide which will allow their safe use.

On chargers add more emphasis to the absolute need for known safe chargers. An under-performing cell can be safe in a good charger but no cell is safe in a poor charger.

On the dangers of cheap cells, add or link to venting with flame vids and pics; be graphic about how serious these dangers can be. Also add something more on not breathing the fumes at all as this is probably the most potentially harmful aspect of most venting episodes.

And I’m looking forward to seeing this get “stickied” and referred to regularly- it deserves no less!

Phil

hank
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Yep. combustion of the components is what produces hydrogen fluoride, and that’s the delayed-injury problem doctors need to think about.
https://www.google.com/search?q=li-ion+battery+combustion+vent+fluoride

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The voltage drop immediately off the charger mentioned here should be added to his thread (unless its already there and i missed it)
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344

The Journal of Alternative Facts TM

"It is critical that there is a credible academic source for the growing and important discipline of alternative facts. This field of study will just keep winning, and we knew that all the best people would want to be on board. There is a real risk in the world today that people might be getting their information about science from actual scientists"

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Nice post Mr.Scott. Thanks.

My current and or voltage measurements are only relevent to anything that I measure.

Budget light hobby proudly sponsored by my Mastercard and unknowingly paid for by a hard working wife. 

djozz said "it came with chinese lettering that is chinese to me".

old4570 said "I'm not an expert , so don't suffer from any such technical restrictions".

Old-Lumens. Highly admired and cherished member of Budget Light Forum. 11.5.2011 - 20.12.16. RIP.

 

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This should be translated so as much nationalities can read up.

Here is the same in Dutch
Please other Dutchies, give me some corrections for grammer or wrongfully put scentences, being King Typo, surely there are many.

——————————————————————

Doel publiek:

Deze post geeft een overzicht van veiligheid maatregelen voor gebruikers die nieuw zijn in het gebruik van Lithim-ion batterijen.
Dit is geen compleet overzicht over Lithium-ion batterijen en geeft geen technische redenen van Li-ion gevaren. Het is bedoeld als begin punt.

Er zal waarschijnlijk altijd wel wat onenigheid zijn over de veiligheidsregels. Sommige van deze veiligheid regels kunnen niet van toepassing zijn voor mensen die lab assistenten waren van Dr. John Goodenough, maar hopelijk zijn ze goed te gebruiken door nieuwere gebruikers. Je dient je bewust te wezen van je kennis en ervaringsniveau.

Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen veilig zijn als ze goed gebruikt worden.
Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen gevaarlijk zijn als ze niet goed gebruikt worden.

Koop kwaliteit batterijen.
Een paar centen besparen door batterijen van wellicht mindere kwaliteit te kopen is het niet waard.
Sommige goedkopere batterijen kunnen namaak zijn, of hergebruikt en dus een oude of slechte batterij herbergen onder de mooie nieuwe plastic buitenlaag.

https://batterybro.com/blogs/18650-wholesale-battery-reviews/18852875-re... (link is external)
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1421555-chinas-sloppy-battery-industry-t… (link is external)
Ervaren gebruikers kunnen batterijen uit andere apparatuur winnen, zoals notebooks.
Wacht met deze praktijken tot je ervaring hebt en de juist apparatuur voor je dit zelf proberen gaat.

http://budgetlightforum.com/node/32720

Batterij reviews.
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/rechargeable
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (link is external)

Koop en gebruik een goede oplader.
Ook hier is het belangrijk niet de goedkoopste route te bewandelen.
Een batterij van mindere kwaliteit kan veilig zijn in een goede lader, maar geen enkele batterij is veilig in een slechte lader.(quote van BLF gebruiker SawMaster)

Lees de reviews, en koop een merk batterij met een goede review.
Zaken om rekening mee the houden bij aanschaf:
Overlaad bescherming (Overcharge protection)
Polariteit verwissel bescherming (Reverse polarity protection)
Onafhankelijke kanalen zodat je verschillende type batterijen of batterijen die niet gelijk zijn ontladen an opladen op hetzelfde moment.
Hoe communiceert de lader met je, bijvoorbeeld met indicatie lampjes of een LCD scherm.
De lader moet laden met 4.2V +/- 0.05V, maar de batterij mag met een iets andere lading klaar zijn met laden.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
laders reviews.
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers/reviews
http://budgetlightforum.com/forum/batteries/chargers
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/indexBatteriesAndChargers%20UK.html (link is external)
Koop en gebruik een multi meter.
Velen prefereren een digitale (Digital Multi-Meters (DMM))
Leer het voltage van je Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen te controleren.
http://www.lygte-info.dk/info/Measurement%20UK.html (link is external)
Niet iedereen is van mening dat een DMM noodzakelijk is, maar de meesten zijn wel deze mening toegedaan.

Laden/ontladen
Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen kunnen worden opgeladen bij: 0*C – 45*C (32*F – 113*F)
Ze kunnen worden ontladen (gebruikt) bij: -20*C – 60*C (-4*F – 140*F)
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp… (link is external).
Overlaad geen batterijen. het maximale voltage mag 4.2V zijn.
Ze slechts opladen tot 4.1V kan ervoor zorgen dat je ze vaker kan opladen
Een goede lader zal beschermen tegen overladen.
Sommige laders kunnen +/- 0.05V laden en dat is binnen de marge.
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/45344
Na het laden controleer het voltage van je Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen met je DMM na een korte rustperiode van ~5 min).
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_lithium_ion_batteries (link is external)

Velen zullen hun batterijen opladen als ze 3.5- 3.6V bereikt hebben.
Een Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij is uitgeput/ontladen als deze 2.7-3.0V bereikt. Herladen.
Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen lopen schade op als de ontladen zijn tot 2.5 volts.
Een Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij moet worden afgechreven (afgegeven recycle punt) als deze ontladen is tot 2.0 volts.
Geen batterijen opladen als het onder nul graden is. (0*C / 32*F)
Laat Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen niet te heet worden.
Als je een zaklamp in de auto wilt bewaren in de zomer, gebruik dan niet oplaadbare batterijen.
Hoge temperaturen zorgen voor slijtagedegradatie van de batterijen. Echter, zolang de temperatuur minder is dan 60*C (140*F) zal er waarschijnlijk geen veiligheidsrisico wezen. .
http://budgetlightforum.com/node/42497
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temp… (link is external).
Voor langere opslag van Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen (voor maanden) kan men het beste de batterijen opslaan met 40-50% capaciteit. (Dus opgeladen tot 3.77-3.87V)
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_store_batteries (link is external)
Bewaar Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen altijd in een beschermende behuizing (zoals een plastic goed passend doosje) als ze niet in een zaklamp zitten. Z o kunnen ze niet kortsluiten of beschadigen.
Draag geen losse Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen in je zakken of tas.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1LjSuq0rk8 (link is external) <==
Gebruik geen Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen die uiterljke beschadigingen hebben.
Over het algemeen zijn batterijen met bescherming (protected) veiliger dan Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen zonder bescherming (unprotected).
Een beschermde (protected) batterij heeft electronica ingebouwd welke bescherming hoort te bieden tegen overladen en te ver ontladen.
Deze beschermende onderdelen maken de beschermde batterij wel iets langer en dikker.
Dus zullen beschermde batterijen niet in elke zaklamp passen, ken je zaklamp.
En zijn zaklampen die een laag voltage bescherming hebben en zichzelf uitzetten als de batterij leeg begint te raken, ken je zaklamp.
Sommige veel stroom gebruikende zaklampen zullen de bescherming van batterijen aan doen slaan en kunnen alleen werken met onbeschermde batterijen, ken je zaklamp.

Zaklampen met meerdere batterijen lopen meer risico dan zaklampen met een enkele batterij.
Als je nieuw bent in de zaklamp wereld, begin met een zaklamp die werkt op 1 Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij.
Als je zaklampen gebruikt met meerdere batterijen dan is het de bedoeling ze gelijk te laten ontladen en slijten en te voorkomen dat ze ongelijk zijn.
Het is belangrijk dat alle batterijen:
hetzelfde type zijn,
van dezelfde fabrikant zijn,
dezelfde capaciteit hebben (Ah),
geladen zijn tot hetzelfde voltage.
Je zal ze willen markeren om ze te herkennen en gebruiken als een set.

Het laden van Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen:
Doe dit op een plek zonder brandbare of licht ontvlambare materialen.
Plaats de lader op een ij voorkeur stenen ondergrond en niet op de bank.
Blijf in de buurt en laat de ladende batterijen niet onbeheerd.
Voel regelmatig of de batterijen niet te het worden, wat warm is goed maar heet niet.
Let op, er zijn verschillende meningen over hoe vaak te voelen beter te vaak dan te weinig.
http://www.local10.com/news/local-10-investigates/lithium-ion-battery-bu… (link is external)
Beschadgde batterijen kunnen brand veroorzaken!

Misbruik zoals overladen, te ver ontladen en interne kortsluitingen kunnen leiden tot een temperatuur die veel hoger ligt dan fabrikanten aangeven als veilig. Op een kritieke temperatuur kan er een ketting reactie ontstaan die exotherm is. Deze reactie zal tot nog hogere temperaturen leiden welke de (kinetische) reactie verder zal doen versnellen.
Deze catastrofale zichzelf versnellende afbraak van de Lithium-ion batterij heet een thermal runaway.
De temperatuur kan oplopen tot 900 °C.
De Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterij ka een redelijk grote hoeveelheid brandbaar en giftig (als het de longen bereikt door inademen) gas produceren.
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (link is external)

In het geval van brand en ontsnappend gas zoek onmiddellijk medische hulp.
Brandende of gas producerende Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen produceren hydrogen fluoride.
Symptomen van blootstelling hieraan zijn niet direct duidelijk,
“De batterij kan een flinke hoeveelheid brandbaar en (als ingeademd in hogere concentraties) giftig gas produceren.
Royal Society of Chemistry http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/ra/c3ra45748f (link is external)

Zoek onmiddellijk medische hulp, wacht niet tot symptomen merkbaar worden.
http://www.candlepowerforums.com/vb/showthread.php?141137-Inhaled-vapors… (link is external)!!!

Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen zijn er zonder knop en met.
Er zijn gemixte gevoelens om een magneetje te gebruiken om de batterijen zonder knoop bruikbaar te maken in zaklampen die er knop batterij nodig hebben.

Houdt Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen droog.
Verbrandt geen Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen.
Dank ze correct af (een stukje plakband over de uiteinden en afgeven bij recycle punt of verzamelbak batterijen.
Het is niet veilig om Lithium-ion oplaadbare batterijen te eten.

————————————————————————————-

The Miller
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Asked several BLFers to do a translation kiriba-ru is going to do it to Russian.
X3 is looking into French

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The Miller wrote:
This should be translated so as much nationalities can read up.

Here is the same in Dutch
Please other Dutchies, give me some corrections for grammer or wrongfully put scentences, being King Typo, surely there are many.

Dank je wel The Miller! I’ve never been translated before. Smile

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Graag gedaan!

And hopefully more will come! You can brag your work has been translated in Russian, French, Dutch and who knows maybe/hopefully even more!
Wear a baret and the girls will flock to you Big Smile

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I’ve added a link from the main post to your translation post so people can quickly jump down there.

Now I guess if I update the main post I should PM you and let you know which section/lines were updated so you don’t have to try to scan the whole post to find it. I believe I’ve incorporated all the feedback (except the battery/cell – sorry David) so I don’t anticipate many more changes.

But if anyone sees something please let me know.

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Well done, Mr. Scott, the pictures solidify the point of the thread as well as add authenticity to it.

Thanks again for taking the time.

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Location: The Indigo State, USA, Earth

Nice work, Mr. Scott!!

Well researched, well presented, and much needed as well! I’m really looking forward to watching this baby grow!

I won’t even bug you over the gratuitous “burnt battery” picture, since your intended audience probably does need to be viscerally frightened into Paying Attention…

“There is no darkness but ignorance.”

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