LEDs & Other Stuff - (Reference Guide)

Summarised here is information taken from different resources about LEDs, drivers, batteries, chargers & various other flashlight related stuff condensed as a useful guide with external links to more information.
This post is very image heavy and may take some time to fully load….
Flashlight Basics(link is external)
Flashlight Terminology(link is external)
LED Names Guide
(Some common LED emitters used in flashlights)

LED Size Comparison Guide
(How the LEDs compare in size to each other)

LED Basics(link is external)
Flashlight Wiki(link is external)
LED Close Ups
LED Comparisons
The Fake-Cree LED Awareness Thread
LED Brightness Bins Measured in Lumens at Different Currents
(LEDs are “binned” according to their efficiency, brightness & performance at different currents)

Cree Brightness Bins(link is external)
Various LED Brightness Bins(link is external)
Older LED Bin Coding Charts(link is external)

LED Calaculator(link is external)
Cree Product Characterization Tool(link is external)
Cree Press Releases of New LED’s(link is external)
LED Chip Dimensions, Forward Voltages & Junction Temperatures
(Technical data relating to physical dimensions and operational characteristics of LEDs)

Cree XLamp Datasheet Downloads(link is external)
Cree XLamp Package Sizes(link is external)
Match’s LED Test Data(link is external)
Djozz Crash Testing LEDs
(Tests by BLF member Djozz using different emitters, heatsinks & power levels)
For full details & discussion on the tests, follow the appropriate link below

All Djozz Tests
Koef3 LED Tests
(Tests by BLF member koef3 using different emitters, heatsinks & power levels)
For full details & discussion on the tests, follow the appropriate link below

koef3 LED Tests
Texas_Ace LED Tests
(Tests by BLF member Texas_Ace using different emitters, heatsinks & power levels)
For full details & discussion on the tests, follow the appropriate link below

Texas_Ace Threads
Texas_Ace LED Comparator(link is external)
LED Colour Temperature & Tints
(Determined by the thickness & composition of the yellow phosphors layer covering the LED die)
(Less = “cooler” more bluish light, More = “warmer” more yellowish light)

About LED Light(link is external)
Phosphor Film Conversion for White LEDs(link is external)
Colour Temperature Reference Chart
(This chart shows an explanation of the numbers 1A, 2B, 3C etc)

ANSI-NEMA FL-1(link is external)
Chromaticity(link is external)
Colour Temperature(link is external)
Lets Talk Tints
Solar Spectrum(link is external)
The Visible Spectrum(link is external)
Kruithof Curve(link is external)
Colour Rendering Index(link is external)
Planckian/ Black Body Locus(link is external)
Phosphor(link is external)
DC-Fix Diffusion Film
Tint, Binning & CRI Explained
Various Light Sources on Colour Checker Cards
CRI vs Alternatives with Measurement Examples
Color Rendering Definition, Does CCT Play a Role?
Using your Smartphone as a Luxmeter
Mired Colour Temperature(link is external)
Approximating Colour Temperature with Smartphones & Camera
Maukka LED Output Tests & Reviews
Why do you buy Lights without High-CRI Emitters? .

Additive Colour(link is external) Subtractive Colour(link is external)
R9 Colour Rendering Value(link is external)
UV Lighting

Djozz UV Emitter Tests
Simple Testing of UV Emitter Quality

UV Light Shootout
UV Flashlight Roundup 2018
LED Die Colour vs Tint
Lighting For UV Macro(link is external)
UV Light for Amber Searching
UV LED Tests
ZWB2 2mm – Visible Light Blocking Filter for 365nm UV Flashlights

Tritium Isotopes

Tritium on Flashlights(link is external)
Tritium BLF Search
Tritium Wiki(link is external)
Tritium Illumination(link is external)
Tritium and the Environment(link is external)
What gives Tritium it’s different Colours?
More Information About LEDs

A Perfect De-dome
De doming – What does it do?
De-doming Method with 100% Success
What is the Best way to De-dome an LED?
De-doming with the Emitter Still in the Light
How many De-domed Emitters have you Fried?
Triple XP-L with Carlco – De-dome or not?

XM-L2 Best Tints?
Tint Mixing, Improving De-domed Emitters
De-doming – Illustrations for Colour Changes
Lightbox, XML-2, and some Extreme Numbers
Serious Problem with XM-L2 Current. Is this happening to you?

Reflowing onto a Triple PCB
Reflowing on a Glass Ceramic Cooktop
Reflowing with a Butane Jet Flame
How to Reflow solder an LED emitter on a MCPCB
Made a new Tiny Heatblock for Reflow Soldering

LED Current Calculator(link is external)
Cree Product Characterization Tool(link is external)
Need a bit of Help Understanding VF and Amps
Power Conservation Analysis of Linear & PWM Regulation Methods
Lens Types, Optics, Reflectors & Parts
(Some common optics & parts used in flashlights)

ANSI-NEMA FL-1(link is external)
Lens & Optics Basics(link is external)
Anti-Reflective Coating(link is external)
How Lens Coating Works(link is external)
TIR – Total Internal Reflection(link is external)
The Optimal Lens for use in Thrower Flashlights
Light Loss in TIR & Reflectors
Reflector Width vs Depth
Zoom vs Reflector Lights
Aspheric Lens Theory and Application
Light Lost in Aspheric Lens Flashlight
Flashlight Optics – Dome, De-doming and Throw
Djozz Ongoing Project: Reflector Testing
Would someone please School me on Throw please?
Light Measurements Explained(link is external)
Zoomie without Square Beam?
Optics (TIRs) Comparison Beamshots
DIY Wavien Collar
Making a Reflective Ring by Silver Deposition
Reflectors Cleaning

Understanding the Inverse-Square Law of Light(link is external)

Lumens, Lux – Calculator(link is external)
Lux, Candela – Proper Terminology
Calculating Relative Throw & Flood
Luxmeters: Thoughts, Findings, Comparison

Future Development of the Maximum Luminance of LEDs
The Proper way of Calculating lux/ cd/ candlepower
Reflector Size Calculations
Light Collimation with an LED Flashlight
Advanced Calculators for Theoretical Lumens, lux, Beam Divergence
The Optimal Lens for use in Thrower Flashlights

Pills, P60’s & MCPCB Types
(The Pill houses the LED Driver and the Metal Core Printed Circuit Board (MCPCB) to which the LED is soldered)
(Different types & materials used in flashlights)

Solid Pill Vs Hollow Pill
Aluminium Pill vs Copper Pill

Copper Mounted LED’s
About Noctigon MCPCB’s – 1, 2

XM-L MCPCB Comparison Testing
Copper MCPCB Thermal Pathway Mods – 1, 2, 3

P60 Drop-In Modules(link is external)
P60 DIY Drop-In Modules(link is external)
P60 Hosts – What’s Wrong with Them?
P60 Drop-In Round-Up and XM-L Shootout
P60 Drop-In Alternative to Foil Wrapping – Thermal Silicone
P60 Thermal Test Wrap Materials & Resulting Temperatures
Has anyone Converted their P60s
Noctigon MCPCB mod for P60 setups
Choosing O-Rings Based on Material Makeup(link is external)

Soldering Wires to a Star, a Little Differently?
Soldering Emitters Directly to Copper Wires?
An Unorthodox Way to Solder a Wire to an MCPCB
How To Solder: Copper Pills, LED, Drivers & Other Equipment
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Solder Alloys
LED & MCPCB Thermal Pathways
(Direct vs Non Direct Thermal Path heat transference from LED thermal pad to MCPCB)

Noctigon Wiring Setups & Optics

Emissivity(link is external)
LED Heat Generation
ESP Heatsink Design(link is external)
Thermal Management of High-Power LEDs(link is external)
Thermal Paste
Thermal Paste vs. Graphite Thermal Pad
Just how Important is Thermal Paste?
Thermal Conductivity of Solder
Thermal Conductivity of some Common Materials(link is external)
Fillers for JB Weld or AA
Potting Solutions – Potting Hints(link is external)
High Performance Potting Epoxy
What’s the best Thermal Compound?
Potting Drivers – Budget Reversable Option?
Best Thermal Paste According to Independent Studies?
Potting & Heatsinking with Epoxy & Silicone Carbide Powder
Soldering a MCPCB vs Thermal Adhesive Test Results
Deconstructing a Flashlight(link is external)
ANSI Specs & IP Ratings
(These standards are meant to help end users compare performance & features of products)

International Protection Marking(link is external)
LED Drivers
(Regulate the different modes & control the power to the LED)

Driver Basics(link is external)
Popular Drivers(link is external)
Understanding Linear, Buck, Boost & Direct Drive Drivers
Flashlight User Interfaces – CheatSheets

Qlite 8×7135 AMC chip based Driver Review
7135 chips – Answered
Anatomy of a 7135 Driver Board
Stacking AMC 7135 chips – Impossible?
How to add 7135 chips to a Driver Board
Modding Qlite 7135 to Drive MT-G2
A More Efficient Driver?
Using QTC as Direct Load Control in Flashlights

Buck Converter(link is external)
Buck–Boost Converter(link is external)
Switched-Mode Power Supply(link is external)
Single-Ended Primary-Inductor Converter(link is external)
Joule Thief
DC-DC Converter Tutorial(link is external)

PWM(link is external)
Duty Cycle(link is external)
What is PWM & How to Detect it(link is external)
Phase Correct PWM
Phase-Correct vs Fast-PWM – Scope Images

What is Meant Exactly by the term Direct Drive?
Explain to me the use of Next Mode Memory
Solution for Next Mode Memory Drivers

How LEDs are Adapted for Different Battery Voltages(link is external)
HKJ Driver Reviews(link is external)
AquaLab LED Drivers List(link is external)

How to Build a Flashlight with Perfect Modes
Guide: How to Flash a NANJG / Qlite driver with Custom Firmware
MHV AVR Tools(link is external)
ATtiny Starter Code
Programming AVR Drivers(link is external)
ATtiny13A Datasheet Downloads(link is external)
Atmel AVR ATtiny Comparison Chart(link is external)
Attiny25/45/85 FW Development Thread
How to Use Atmel AVR Studio 5 to make a .hex file
How to Flash ATtiny with AVRDude & Command Prompt
OSH Park Driver Projects
Eagle Libraries
PIC Quickstart Guide
What Programmer to Buy?
Eagle Video Tutorials – BLF Style
PIC 10F322 Basic Flashlight Firmware
How to Build a SOIC Programming Clip
Off-Time Mode Switching for Stock Nanjg Drivers
Buck and Boost Drivers, Testing, Modding, and Discussion

ToyKeepers Flashlight Firmware Repository
Wight’s List of Drivers
Lexels Driver Compilation
The Texas Avenger TA Driver series
Texas Buck Driver Series
Led4power Drivers, Tailcaps, MCPCB’s

Dr Jones Custom Firmwares(link is external)
LuxDrv, LupoDrv, MobyDrv, Nlite, MiniDrv, MiniMo, RGBW

Springs Testing by Djozz
Spring Compression and Current Flow
How to add Copper Braid to Springs
DIY Lighted Tailcap – GITD and Trit Alternative
SMD Resistor Values
(Some common resistor values found in electronic devices)

SMD Resistor Code Calculator(link is external)

How do Resistors Work(link is external)
Surface-Mount Device Technology(link is external)
3 Digit SMD Resistor Examples(link is external)
4 Digit SMD Resistor examples(link is external)
Resistor Temperature
Resistors in Parallel Calculator(link is external)
Ohms Law/Resistance Calculator(link is external)
Reading Resistor Colour Codes(link is external)
Multimeters and Current Measurement
AWG Wire Conversion
(Simple wire conversion so we can know what the USA folks are talking about Wink

Wire Gauge Calculator(link is external)
Wire Gauge and Current Limits Including Skin Depth and Strength(link is external)
A quick reference to some cells showing capacities, dimensions, runtimes at different loads etc
Images and data courtesy of HKJ
For his full in-depth reviews please visit his website(link is external)

Battery Sizes(link is external)
Battery University(link is external)
Battery Glossary(link is external)
Battery Abbreviations(link is external)
Non Rechargeable Batteries
Primary Cells(link is external)

About Primary Batteries(link is external)
Choices of Primary Batteries(link is external)
Energy at Low Voltage in Alkaline Batteries
Zinc Carbon,(link is external) Alkaline,(link is external) Lithium Primary(link is external) Disassembly of 9V Primary Batteries
Rechargeable Batteries
Secondary Cells(link is external)
NiMH Cells(link is external)

Eneloop NiMH Rechargeables
Images and data thanks to HKJ Reviews(link is external) and ChibiM’s Overview: All Eneloop Batteries
See also Eneloop 101.com(link is external)

More Info on Eneloop Developments
Japanese vs Chinese Eneloop Cycle Testing Results(link is external)
Long Term 2nd and 1st Generation Eneloop Observations

Nickel-Based Batteries(link is external)
Charging NiCd Batteries(link is external)
Charging NiMH Batteries(link is external)
HKJ Battery Charging NiMH

Comparison of Secondary Batteries(link is external)
Test of AA Batteries – Eneloops, Primary Lithiums & Alkaline

Comparison of AA Battery Chemistries(link is external)
HKJ’s NiMH & Primary Cell Individual Tests(link is external)

HKJ’s NiMH & Primary Cell Comparator(link is external)
Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries
Lithium-Ion Cells(link is external)
(Lithium-Ion cells are defined by their physical dimensions)

(Although most cells do not conform to these exact measurements, especially protected button top cells which are usually slightly longer & wider due to the added components)

Button Top or Flat Top(link is external)
How to Tell if a Battery is Protected
The Anatomy of a Protected Battery(link is external)
How to Re-Wrap a Battery
Protection Circuits(link is external)
Discharge Protection Tests
Resetting Protection Circuits
Protection on the Positive Side
Disassembly of 9V Li-Ion Batteries
Internal Impedance/ Resistance of Batteries
Lithium Ion Battery Safety & Cell Voltages
(Lithium Ion cells require more careful handling than normal off the shelf batteries and can be extremely dangerous if mistreated. This can happen by overcharging, overdischarging, physical damage and shorting.
Safe voltage parameters for this type of cell are, unless otherwise stated:
Fully Charged 4.2v – Fully Depleted 2.5 – 3.0v.
The use of a simple Digital MultiMeter is highly advised for periodic checks of the cells and charging equipment performance.)

A Litany for Beginners
Lithium-Ion Battery Safety 101
MDs Lithium-Ion > Incandescent Guide(link is external)
Charger Not Charging to 4.2v, is it faulty?

Lithium-Ion Safety Concerns(link is external)
Summary of Do’s and Don’ts(link is external)
Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries(link is external)
Li-Ion Battery Safety & Shopping Guide
Using Li-Ion cells in LED flashlights Safely(link is external)
Using a Digital Multimeter(link is external)
Multimeters and Thermocouples
How far can Li-Ion be Discharged?

14500 Battery Explosion
Ultrafire 18650 3000mA exploded(link is external)
18650, How Dangerous is it for a Newbie like me?

Gouged Battery
Alkaline Leakage
Leaking Li-Ion Cells
Dinged & Dented Cells
Flat-Top 18650 Battery Pushed In

Battery Chemistry Explained(link is external)
Lithium-Based Batteries(link is external)
Types of Lithium-Ion Cells(link is external)
Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries(link is external)

Internal Resistance of Batteries(link is external)
How Healthy are your Batteries(link is external)

Parasitic Drain(link is external)
How to Find Parasitic Drain(link is external)
Typical Cell Voltages

Current Draw Conversion

Watts Volts Amps – Some Explaining

10440 Cells

14500 Cells

16340 Cells

CR123A and Rechargeable Substitutes(link is external)
18350 Cells

HKJ’s Small Cell Individual Tests(link is external)
HKJ’s Small Li-Ion Cell Comparator(link is external)
18500 Cells


18650 Cells


Test/Review of Samsung SDI INR18650-30Q
Test/Review of Panasonic/Sanyo NCR18650 GA Comparison with Samsung 35E & LG MJ1
HKJ’s Large Cell Individual Tests(link is external)
HKJ’s 18650 Li-Ion Cell Comparator(link is external)
HKJ’s Summary for all Tested 18650 Cells(link is external)
HKJ’s Common Curves for all Tested 18650 Cells(link is external)
Test/ Review of Lumintop 18650 3400mAh USB LM34C
Test/ Review of MecArmy 18650 U18-34 3400mAh USB
Disassembly of USB Charged Batteries
20-21700 cells

26650 Cells

HKJ’s 26650 Cell Individual Tests(link is external)
HKJ’s 26650 Li-Ion Cell Comparator(link is external)

Estimating Remaining Capacity in Li-Ion Cells(link is external)
Reading The Graphs
How to Read the Comparators
How the Tests are done & How to Read the Charts(link is external)

Battery Comparison Charts
AkkuDB Cell Comparators(link is external)

Review Request for HKJ – Rechargeable Batteries
Batteries to Avoid
(Very poor quality cells with false capacity claims and very often, safety issues)

Bad Batteries
Batteries with Ridiculous Ratings
Disassembly of a cheap 18650 Battery
Disassembly of some UltraFire Batteries
UltraFire Fakes, Opened up and Refunded
Test/Review of UltraFire SZ18650 9900mAh
Disassembly of UltraFire 9900mAh 18650 battery
Have you seen this type of Counterfeit 18650 Before?

More Information About Batteries
(Links to various articles on the subject of batteries)

Best IMR 18650?
Battery Capacity(link is external)
What is the C-rate(link is external)
Net Calorific Value(link is external)
Confusion with Voltages(link is external)
How to Maximize Runtime(link is external)

How to Store Batteries(link is external)
Can Batteries be Restored?(link is external)
Life Expectancy of an 18650
What causes Lithium-Ion to Age(link is external)
Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Tips
How to Know End of Battery Life(link is external)
How to Prolong Lithium-Based Cells(link is external)
How Long can New Batteries sit Before Charging

Four Renegades of Battery Failure(link is external)
Corrosion, Shedding and Internal Short(link is external)
Optical Micrographs taken from a Failed 18650 Battery(link is external)
Phenomenon of Lithium Plating during the Charging Process(link is external)
Why do Li-Ion Batteries Die & How to Improve the Situation(link is external)

Serial and Parallel Configurations(link is external)
Battery Balancing(link is external)
Balance Charging 18650/26650 Cells

Charging from a USB Port(link is external)
Fast and Ultra-Fast Chargers(link is external)
How to Charge and When to Charge(link is external)
Cables Can Significantly Impact the Charging Speed USB Devices(link is external)

Cycling Performance(link is external)
How to Prime Batteries(link is external)
Basics about Discharging(link is external)
Discharging at High and Low Temperatures(link is external)
Best Battery for Cold Conditions? < 0 degree celsius

Watts(link is external)
Ampere(link is external)
Ampere-Hour(link is external)
Volts(link is external)
Electric Current(link is external)
Conventional Current vs Electron Flow(link is external)

Community Battery Pulls Overview Thread
Tutorial: Laptop Battery Pack 18650 Extraction(link is external)
Cheap Authentic Battery Packs to Harvest 18650 Cells
Best Brand Laptop Battery for 18650 Cells & Capacity Formula
Jump Started my Car with of 6 Panasonic NCR 18650A this morning…
Which Laptop Battery Pack yields the Best, Highest Capacity 18650’s?
USB Accessories & Charging Equipment
Test/Review Index of HKJ Tested USB Chargers
Review Request for HKJ USB Power Devices
Disassembly of USB Charged Batteries
USB Wiring Diagrams & Coding

USB Wiki(link is external)
Cables Can Significantly Impact the Charging Speed USB Devices(link is external)
HKJ’s USB Power Information
HKJ’s How Does a USB Charger Work?
HKJ’s Index of Articles about Chargers/ Batteries etc
A look at QI – Wireless Power Transfer
Battery Chargers
Test/Review Index of HKJ Tested Chargers
Review Request for HKJ Chargers
HKJ Testing Status for 2014
HKJ Testing Status for 2015
HJK Testing Status for 2016
HKJ Testing Status for 2017
HKJ Testing Status for 2018
HKJ Testing Status for 2019

HKJ’s Lab Setup/ Equipment
How HKJ Tests USB Power Supplies/ Powerbanks(link is external)
More Information About Chargers
Charger Basics – 1,(link is external) 2(link is external)
Reviews of Batteries and Chargers(link is external)
Reviews of USB Charging Equipment(link is external)
What is a Hobby Charger(link is external)
How HKJ Tests Chargers(link is external)

Thanks to HKJ, Match, ChibiM, Scaru, Djozz, Texas_Ace, Flashlight Wiki, and
everyone else who contributed to this reference compilation. Thumbs Up
Some Useful Component Sellers
List of Suppliers

Other Interesting Links

HKJ Reviews(link is external)
FlashlightWiki(link is external)
Battery University(link is external)
Basic Flashlight Tutorial(link is external)

SelfBuilt Flashlight Reviews(link is external)
Old Lumens Youtube Videos(link is external)
A Guide to Anodize your Titanium
Fix for Non-Standing Tailcap Switch Boots
Anodizing on Flashlights-How to tell the Difference
The Evolution of a Flashaholic
A Beginners Guide to Flashaholism
Talk about Future Projects and Donation Topic

All things budget knives
What blade did you EDC today?
Parametrek Product Search Flashlights(link is external)

CRX Flashlight Builds
Flashlight User Interfaces – CheatSheets
Old Lumens BLF Contest Archive 2013 to 2019
What did You Mod Today?
GITD Glow Powders & Gaskets

The BLF Automotive Car LED Headlights Thread
The Daily Joke Thread
You have a Flashlight Addiction when…
BudgetLightForum Wink

This is fantastic info all in one place. Thanks for doing this!

Wow, that MT-G led is sexy :slight_smile:

-Jamie M.

AWESOME. Thank you for the data compilation.

Bookmarked and subscribed.


Phenomenal work CRX!

Must have taken you ages to get all the photos sorted 8)

Thanks for putting all this info in one place.


Good Day CRX, :slight_smile:

:arrow: SUPERB resource…. :exmark:

Thank You Very Much,
Roberta 0:)

Nice work!

Thanks for compiling all that useful info into one place. Very helpful.

Top notch reference! Thanks so much for compiling all of this. Sticky’d.

This reminds me to post something Scaru and i had worked on a while back

Actual size of leds is important,mabye another set of pics with actual size(you can find dimensions in datasheets).

useful compilation!

Excellent job, thank you very much!

Great sticky, will be a great reference to both beginners and modders. Thanks for the compilation!

Added to my own bookmark. :wink:

Brings up the question why is nobody using this cree xte emitters?

This is a great list. Thank you for doing this :)

Thanks crx, great info for us newbies.

Good idea, added.

Open to other suggestions anyone may have.

That must have been a ton of work, thank you very much. Loads of useful info in one bookmark!

I was thinking,one picture just like the first one,but real scaled leds dimensions.For example,set XM-L(2) as reference size,and increase/decrease size of other leds acorrding to their dimensions relative to xm-l.Or simpler,picture should look exactly like you have all these emmiters on the table and you take pic of them with camera.